Malcolm X was a racist

Malcolm X

(Malcolm Little, 1925-1965). Little grew up in Omaha / Nebraska under difficult social circumstances and racist. Assaulted his family. In the early 1940s he came to Boston, where he came into conflict with the law as a petty criminal (pimping, extortion and drug trafficking) and was sentenced to six years in prison in 1946. During his detention he learned the writings of Elijah Muhammad, the head of the Nation of Islam, and converted to Islam. After his release in 1952, he became the most important minister (preacher) of the Nation of Islam, whose rise was directly linked to him. Instead of a "usual" Islam. Taking names, he called himself Malcolm X, a cipher for the anonymous blacks in the ghettos. Internally, he structured the Nation of Islam into a disciplined organization that was repressive towards its members and had its own paramilitary. Security service. Elijah Muhammad's numerous violations of the Code of the Nation of Islam finally led to a conflict with M. in 1963, who was subsequently expelled from the organization. In the remaining two years of his life, M. made several trips to the arab. World, i.a. a pilgrimage to Mecca. He also distanced himself from the synkretist. Content of the Nation of Islam and rejected its notion of racial separatism. At the same time, he was moving towards a more conservative Sunni. Form of Islam and became an early exponent of the Third World movement. M. was murdered by members of the Nation of Islam in 1965. Since the 1990s - not least through the biographer. Film by Spike Lee - is the ¬ęspiritual legacy¬Ľ of M.s v. a. through commercial marketing in the americ. Public presence.

Literature:
Malcolm X / Haley, A .: Malcolm X. The Autobiography, 1992. - Marable, M .: Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention, 2011.

Author:
Prof. Dr. Tim Epkenhans, University of Freiburg, Iranian Studies

Source: Elger, Ralf / Friederike Stolleis (eds.): Kleines Islam-Lexikon. History - everyday life - culture. Munich: 6th, updated and expanded edition 2018.