How is butane used as a solvent
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Alkanes are used in many ways as solvents, fuels, fuels, for fat synthesis, for conversion into olefins (which play a major role as starting materials for alkylbenzenes in the synthesis of biodegradable detergents), for the production of fatty acids through air oxidation, for the production of SCP (protein ) etc.
Most of the methane obtained is burned for heating purposes. Only a relatively small proportion is further processed chemically. An important use for methane is the production of a carbon monoxide-hydrogen mixture by incomplete combustion and / or conversion of methane with water vapor. This synthesis gas is used for the synthesis of methanol, the production of aldehydes / alcohols by oxo synthesis and for the production of hydrogen (e.g. for the synthesis of ammonia). Methane is an important raw material for large-scale syntheses, e.g. in the production of halogenated hydrocarbons such as methyl chloride, methylene chloride, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and for the preparation of fluorocarbons, carbon disulfide, acetylene, hydrogen cyanide, soot, etc. Through oxidative coupling or in a methane plasma, one obtains Links. Microbiological utilization for protein synthesis, e.g. by methane-oxidizing bacteria, is becoming increasingly important. However, only a small amount of the methane obtained is used in the chem. Used in industry, the majority is used as fuel (heating gas, town gas) or fuel For the latter purpose, it is sold in metal bottles under 150 pressure, among other things. Methane is transported as liquid gas in tankers at temperatures below -161.
Ethane is used as a heating gas. Ethane is also used to obtain ethylene by pyrolysis or acetaldehyde and acetic acid by catalytic oxidation.
Propane is an important raw material for the petrochemical industry. In pressurized gas cylinders as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for laboratories and households for combustion and heating purposes [mean calorific value (Hu) 93 MJ /], as a refrigerant in industry, as a selective solvent for higher-boiling crude oil fractions and for deasphalting, for organic syntheses (chlorination, Oxidation, ammoxidation, nitration), but mainly as a starting material for ethylene and propylene. BTX aromatics can be produced by dehydrocyclooligomerization on zeolites. Nowadays, propane is often used - generally together with butane - instead of chlorofluorocarbons as a propellant in sprays, although national regulations (flammability) and the presence of potentially odorous accompanying substances must be observed.
Butane is an important raw material for the petrochemical industry. In pressurized gas cylinders as liquefied gas, for use as fuel gas in laboratories and households (calorific value: 124 MJ /), as a low-temperature solvent and extraction agent, but mainly as a starting product for the technical production of 1,3-butadiene and so-called polymer gasoline, as well as of maleic anhydride.
n-Pentane is a solvent, is used for foaming phenolic resin and polystyrene, as a propellant for aerosols, for filling low-temperature thermometers and as a reference substance in gas chromatography.
Hexane is used for oil and fat extraction, as a solvent and reaction medium in polymerizations for the production of plastics and synthetic rubber, as a diluent for quick-drying paints, printing inks and adhesives, and as an elution and solvent in thin-layer chromatography and spectroscopy, in thermometers as a mercury substitute.
Heptane is used as a solvent in the laboratory and for quick-drying paints and adhesives.
Aromatization to xylenes and ethylbenzene; mainly as a solvent and in azeotropic distillations. One of the 18 isomers (isooctane) is not used to determine the octane number.
Nonane is used for the production of surfactants and entrainers for distillation technology.
Undecane / Dodecane:
Undecane and dodecane are used as reference substances in gas chromatography, chlorinated dodecane for the production of alkylbenzenesulfonates.
Alkanes can be synthesized through carbon hydrogenation, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (see gasoline), cracking, catalytic hydrogenation of alkenes, reduction of haloalkanes, hydrolysis of Grignard compounds, Wurtz coupling, hydrolysis of carbides, Kolbe electrolysis or polymerization Extract ethylene.
Since the availability of crude oil and coal is limited, more environmentally friendly energy sources (sun, wind, water) will gradually replace fossil energy sources. But the importance of oil and coal for the chemical industry as a raw material source for carbon is still unbroken. The processing and use of renewable biomass as a raw material source for industry is therefore a focus of research.
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