What are the 7 types of syllables

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  • Concept of the phonological syllable The phonological syllable is the smallest sequence of sounds that can be uttered independently. [baɪn] [baɪ] [aɪn] [aɪ] Marginal (interjections) also: [iː] [oː] Only ...
  • To what extent is the phonological syllable a prosodic ... insofar as it has properties that cannot be attributed solely to properties of the sounds it comprises, e.g. those of stress. -> Phonological syllables are groups of sounds with ...
  • Relevance of the syllable as a prosodic unit The phonological syllable forms the reference area for various regularities: Phonological processes (sometimes only work within the syllable) Phonotactic regularities (there are coincidence and ...
  • The syllable as a domain for phonological rules Example: Rule of hardness of final voices: According to popular belief, obstruents are generally realized voiceless in syllable voices Example: days day daily -> [tɑ.gə] [tɑk] ...
  • The syllable as a domain for phonotactic rulesExamples: • There are consonants in German whose occurrence is restricted to the beginning or end of syllables (e.g. h, ƞ). • For the sequence of most consonants ...
  • The syllable as a reference value for accents • In German only syllables that can be emphasized can have an accent tone • In German a syllable that can be emphasized can have a maximum of one accent tone.
  • Full syllable = syllable whose syllable core includes a full vowel -> can be emphasized (but not always emphasized) Reduction syllable = syllable whose syllable core includes a reducing vowel or a sonorant (m, ...
  • Main syllable vs. subordinate syllable Main syllable = syllable that has a word accent Subordinate syllable = syllable that has no word accent.
  • Auxiliary syllables in loan and foreign vocabulary Auxiliary syllables can contain full vowels e.g. ˌMa.ni.ˈkü.re 3 full syllables, 1 reduction syllable / 2 main syllables, 2 ancillary syllables ˌMa.ni.ˌpu.la.ˈtion 5 full syllables, no reduction syllables / ...
  • 3. Syllable structure 3.1 Components of the syllable A. ... Division into: onset (beginning) and rhyme: nucleus and coda starting margin and end margin k: onset + starting margin v: onset + starting margin a: rhyme (+ nucleus / core) l: rhyme (+ Coda) + end margin m: rhyme (+ coda) ...
  • Examples for starting edge (onset), nucleus (core), ... starting edge core end edge shoe [ʃuː] ʃ uː ...
  • B. CV model (see slide 11) Syllable layer CV layer (Velcro layer) Segment layer V-elements = 'syllable' elements, can form a syllable peak (and only the syllable core) C-elements = 'unsilbic' elements' ...
  • Applications of CV phonology (non-linear representation ... CV level: CVC CVCC sound level: came ka: m comb came
  • Applications of CV phonology (cont.) (Representation ... CVCC = hot CVCC = house CVCC = Heuss
  • Applications of CV Phonology (cont.) Representation ... (See slide 14) Advantage: Phonematic evaluation can be based solely on phonetic regularities. Regularities that affect quantity or syllable weight are represented on the CV level. ...
  • Applications of CV-Phonology (cont.) Representation ... Reference to syllable-cut correlation Gentle Schmitt (smooth syllable cut), loose connection: CVCC came Sharp cut (abrupt syllable cut), fixed connection: CVC comb With a sharp cut ...
  • APPLICATION CV phonology (see slides 16 + 17) ...
  • PhonotacticsSimple syllable borders: The beginning or end border contains only one sound. Complex syllable borders: The starting border or end border contains more than one sound. Examples: ...
  • Combination of syllable types into larger groups: ... Closed syllables VC, CVC, CVCC ... End margin is non-empty Covered syllables CV, CVC, CCVC, ... Start margin is non-empty Open syllables V_, CV_, CCV_,. .. End margin is empty Naked syllables ...
  • Phonotactic regularities in monosyllables 1. How many elements are there in the starting margin, core, ending margin, and rhyme of a syllable? Minimum requirements Maximum restrictions 2. Which elements appear alone or together in the initial margin, ...
  • (1) How many elements occur in the initial margin, core, ... Minimality requirements - Are there monosyllables with an empty initial margin? - Are there monosyllables with an empty core? - Are there monosyllables with an empty end margin? never, cattle - How many elements does rhyme contain ...
  • (1) How many elements appear in the initial margin, core, ...- How many elements can the initial margin contain? CCC_: line, crack, plug - how many elements can the core contain? - How many elements can the end margin / rhyme contain? How many elements ...
  • Maximum constraints (cont.) What is the maximum number of consonants in the end margin of monosyllables after a tense vowel? Within the morpheme there is usually nothing more than a consonant. Maximum cases: moon, biscuit, pope, fruit Which ...
  • View slide 24 ...
  • (2) Which elements occur alone or together in ... What types of nuclei are there? In which nuclei are tense vowels in opposition to unstrained vowels? See Band Beet - bed pray never ask mild style - silent styles ...
  • (3) In which order do these elements appear in ... Relevant sound classes: vowels, nasals, liquids, obstruents (sth and stl) Which orders are used in the beginning and end of the following word forms and which are not? Almost all sequence regularities ...
  • In what order do the sounds appear in the syllable ......
  • Sonority hierarchy + general Sibelnbaugesetz => ......
  • 4. Silbification 4.1 Basics How are polysyllabic word forms typically structured in German? Two-syllables, consisting of stressed syllable + unstressed syllable Examples: a. Bo.te, le.ge, ro.te b. E.sel, e.del c. Wall, ...
  • Syllables with a consonantic syllable core (see slide ..., ...
  • Structure of multiple syllables (a. Ancillary syllables in the native ... a. Ancillary syllables in the native vocabulary: ancillary syllables are mostly reduction syllables -> Trochaic forms e.g. Bo.te, Ei.mer, sie.ben Deviating: suffixes such as -ung, -heit
  • Structure of multi-syllables (full syllables + reduction syllables) ... full syllables reduction syllables full vowel reduction vowel ...
  • Structure of multi-syllables (sub-syllables in loan vocabulary) ... Sub-syllables can contain tense vowels, e.g. manicure, manipulation
  • Main types of trochaic two-syllables rent, pray open syllable, tense vowel mint, best closed syllable, open vowel middle, beds ?? There is an ambisilbic consonant, a 'syllable joint'. (a) The syllable boundary ...
  • Supplement: extrasilbic consonants Richard Wiese (1996): Maximum syllable structure: CCVCC (tense vowels and diphthongs: VC) Consonants that follow the 2nd C position are extrasilbic Examples: Werft, Mumps, Herbst, ...

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