Self-hypnosis is a sin in Christianity

Resource and healing power of faith in psychotherapy

Table of Contents:

1 Resource and Healing Power of Faith in Psychotherapy

2 research interest
2.1 Research question and aim
2.2 Delimitation

3 theories on the research topic "Resource and healing power of faith in psychotherapy".
3.1 Joseph Murphy: The Power of Your Subconscious
3.1.1 Causality of positive and negative thoughts
3.1.2 Function of the subconscious
3.1.3 Image of God
3.1.4 Belief
3.1.5 Autosuggestion as self-help
3.1.6 The "scientific prayer" as an affirmative method
3.1.7 Words of salvation in the Holy Scriptures
3.2 Erhard F. Freitag: Power center subconscious
3.2.1 Trance and relaxation
3.2.2 Suggestion training
3.2.3 Autosuggestions
3.2.4 The beneficial effects of positive suggestions
3.2.5 Hypnosis
3.2.6 Katathymes picture life according to Leuner
3.2.7 Image of God
3.2.8 Church
3.3 Herbert Benson: Healing through Faith.
3.3.1 Healing Power of Faith
3.3.2 Specific healing power of belief in God
3.3.3 Your faith helped you "in the miraculous healings of Jesus
3.3.4 "Self-Care"
3.3.5 "Well-being remembered"
3.3.6 The healing effect of the "relaxation reaction"
3.3.7 "Belief Factor"
3.3.8 Spiritual dimension
3.3.9 Healing Power of Prayer
3.3.10 Mystical God Experience
3.3.11 Affirmation and visualization as methods
3.3.12 Positive correlation between religiosity and health
3.4 Bernhard Grom: Psychology of Religion
3.4.1 Belief in God as an empirically proven reality
3.4.2 Religiousness and psychological well-being
3.4.3 Excursus: intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity
3.4.4 Religiousness and belief in God as an individual resource in need and suffering
3.4.5 Control motivation and coping of religiosity and belief
3.4.6 Self-esteem and religious beliefs in psychotherapy
3.4.7 Feelings in the relationship with God in analogy to interpersonal feelings
3.4.8 Which psychotechnics promote religious experience?
3.4.9 Necessity of inner concentration as a prerequisite for intensive inner religious experience
3.5 Sebastian Murken: Relationship to God and Mental Health.
3.6 Reinhard Tausch: Insights into mental processes in religious belief and in Christian ethical messages.

4 Theological Aspects of the Healing Power of Faith
4.1 Attributions to God in the Old and New Testaments
4.2 Prayer to God as help in need
4.3 Prayer, Faith and Salvation in the New Testament
4.4 Attitudes in the believer's relationship with God
4.5 Jesus Christ's promise of salvation:
4.6 The Holy Spirit in the believer
4.7 The saving deeds of Jesus and the faith of the sick
4.8 The words of salvation in the psalms.
4.9 The Church as a sacrament of salvation.
4.10 Finding God in Nature

5 Caritas Science Aspects of Faith and Relationships:
5.1 Structural analogy as a scientific method
5.2 Faith as a relational "reality"
5.3 The love relationship
5.4 Church as the basic "reality" of healing

6 research hypotheses

7 Methodological structure of the study
7.1 Basic information on empirical research on the object of investigation
7.2 The subject of investigation
7.3 Qualitative choice of method
7.4 Overall methodological concept
7.4.1 The investigation plan
7.4.2 The survey procedure: problem-centered interview
7.4.3 The problem-centered interview as an expert survey
7.4.4 The Problem-Centered Interview
7.4.5 Preparation and implementation of the interviews
7.4.5.1 Preparation of content
7.4.5.2 Organizational preparation
7.4.5.3 Start of conversation
7.4.5.4 Execution and recording
7.4.5.5 End of conversation
7.4.5.6 Adoption
7.4.5.7 Conversation Notes
7.4.6 The interview guide
7.4.6.1 The problem analysis
7.4.6.2 The guideline construction
7.4.6.3 Pilot phase
7.4.6.4 Conducting the interview
7.4.7 The preparation process: Verbatim transcription
7.5 Qualitative content analysis according to Mayring
7.6 Determination of the starting material
7.6.1 Determination of the material
7.6.2 Analysis of the development situation
7.6.3 Formal characteristics
7.7 Question of the analysis
7.7.1 Direction of analysis
7.7.2 Theory-guided differentiation of the question
7.8 The summary content analysis as an adequate technique
7.8.1 Determination of the analysis units
7.8.2 Paraphrasing
7.8.3 Determination of the 1st reduction by generalization
7.8.4 2. Reduction and creation of a category system
7.8.5 Review of the category system

8 Evaluation of the 3 transcribed interviews with the help of the summarizing content analysis according to Mayring
8.1 Paraphrases and 1st reduction
8.2 Category systems through 2nd reduction

9 Interpretation of the empirical results
9.1 Key Findings
9.2 Comparison of the empirical findings of this study with the theories and findings presented in Chapter 2
9.3 The research hypotheses FH 1-7 (cf. 5.0.) Could be confirmed by the empirical investigation, as the above statements have shown. An explicit justification can therefore be dispensed with at this point.

10 Conclusion, criticism and outlook
10.1 Résumée
10.2 Critical reflection on the investigation
10.3 Outlook for further research projects

1 Resource and Healing Power of Faith in Psychotherapy

An empirical case study with 3 Catholic patients after successful spiritual hypnotherapeutic treatment and autotherapy practiced self-relaxation with positive suggestions.

More and more people in Germany suffer from mental disorders[1] of various kinds, such as lack of self-confidence, self-esteem, problems in the partnership and seek help in psychotherapeutic treatment.

How up-to-date is the social finding already established by St. Teresa of Avila at that time in the Middle Ages, to which St. Edith Stein refers in the following that it is strange that someone does not have his own house [his soul house, dV] know: "... in fact many souls are 'so sick and so used to dealing with external things ... that it seems impossible for them to go inside.' So they have forgotten how to pray."[2]

In addition to professional psychotherapy, many mentally suffering people seek help by reading life help books, the range of which on the book market has grown enormously in recent years. These life help books often offer self-help that sufferers are looking for. Regardless of the diversity of this literature, there is a specific direction which is often referred to as "positive thinking" and which is associated with authors such as Dr. Joseph Murphy[3], Erhard F. Friday[4], Norman V. Peale[5], Dale Carnegy[6] inter alia is connected.

What these authors have in common, which also belong to the so-called esoteric scene[7] be attributed is that this is outside the major Christian churches[8] Offer individual salvation and describe individual ways to achieve it.

The individual search of mentally suffering for help outside the church context corresponds to the social fact that for years more and more believers have turned away from the major churches and are looking for new religious content.[9]

The search for help for mentally afflicted people is also shown by the enormous increase in interest in the use of self-help concepts such as autogenic training, yoga, meditations, etc., as well as the interest in life-aid-oriented books that contain religious or spiritual content in the New Age sense.

The background of the present study is the diaconal accompaniment, above all of mentally suffering people, which the author had accompanied psychotherapeutically in 10 years of practical work as a non-medical practitioner.

The treatment was carried out through a spiritually oriented hypnotherapy, which was based on the basic works of Murphy and Freitag and thus belonged to the prior understanding of both the patient and the practitioner. After years of spiritual search, the author found himself dealing with esoteric literature[10] and self-awareness in the esoteric scene back to the Christian religion, the Christian faith and the church.

The author's basic therapeutic concept contains various complementary theories and therapeutic treatment methods: Positive thinking according to Joseph Murphy[11], Hypnotherapy, NLP[12], the Katathyme picture life after Leuner[13] and Christian spirituality. In broad outline, the author's therapeutic concept can be briefly described as follows:

For emotional and psychosomatic suffering, mostly unconscious conflicts or negative bad attitudes are causal, which are caused by trauma and / or experiences in childhood.

Hypnotherapy and Katathyme picture life are particularly suitable for treating these states of suffering, because they provide access to and contact with the subconscious[14] enable. Through this contact with the subconscious, therapeutic processes through hypnocatharsis, hypnoanalysis and a positive reorientation with the help of positive suggestions can take place, which help the patient to get out of the mental suffering and to experience mental well-being. This can also involve unconscious resources[15] can be discovered and stimulated and used as self-healing powers for soul and body. Hypnotherapy and Katathymes picture life include a relaxed state of consciousness and body, which is a prerequisite for access to the subconscious. It was important to the author to integrate the relationship to God as a healing force into the therapy, e.g. in the form of suggestions such as "You are completely safe and secure in God's love and power, God's love fills you and flows through you with every breath", which were suggested in the hypnosis and were given to the patient as a cassette recording for their own further work or in the first person as an autosuggestion.

This spiritual dimension in therapy was only shared with patients who were open and approachable and who had a positive relationship with God.

Psychotherapy means from the word "mental healing treatment"[16].

The Greek word "psyche" means "breath, breath, soul"[17], Therapy as "healing treatment for the sick" derived from the Greek therapeia, originally "serving, service;[18].

According to the definition of H.Strotzka (1975), psychotherapy is "a planned interactive process for influencing experience and behavior disorders and the resulting suffering, which are agreed (between patient and therapist) to be in need of treatment; P. uses exclusively Psychological means (mostly verbal) and aimed at a jointly defined goal (minimization of symptoms, competent handling of the disorder by the patient or structural change in personality) using teachable techniques based on theories about so-called normal and abnormal experience and behavior. "[19]

Under psychotherapy both the therapeutic situation in professional psychotherapy i. S. a heterotherapy (here in the special form of spiritual hypnotherapy[20]) as well as self-help through applied psychotherapeutic aids (self-relaxation, autosuggestion) i.S. understood from autotherapy.

Some patients experienced intensive religious encounters with God in the course of the therapy in hypnosis, which were individually very different:

This is how patient A experienced[21] in the 7th session in hypnosis an inner encounter with Jesus. Here she saw Jesus as a figure of light in a golden, glittering robe with long hair.[22] She felt how Jesus was holding her on her left hand with his right hand and heard Him say: I will always stay with you. The patient felt a great strength in her heart. In another session, she experienced the feeling of being washed clean by sexual pollution[23] in the loving closeness of Jesus, who washed them by a clear brook.

In a guided regression into the womb, patient B. experienced herself as an intrauterine "grain" during conception, while she felt God's love and felt secure in light and calm.

Patient C. reported that praying to God gives courage, that God is something good that helps.

These 3 patients had come to psychotherapy from different psychological states of suffering and were looking for help for their mental well-being:

A (35 y.) Was the victim of a failed marriage and was looking for freedom from fears and awareness of unconscious negative relationship patterns.
B (38) came after previously suffering from cancer and after surgery and wanted to experience in therapy the letting go of traumatic experiences of her childhood in order to experience health and joie de vivre in the here and now.
C (30) suffered from self-esteem problems in partnerships and other interpersonal contacts.

All three patients were Catholic, had a positive relationship with God and were convinced of the therapeutic effectiveness of hypnotherapy and the positive thinking according to Murphy and Freitag.

They completed an intensive short-term therapy in the author's practice, which consisted of 20 hypnotherapy sessions, which were completed twice a day, each lasting 90 minutes.

The setting and the basic process were similar:

The patients were led into a hypnotic state of calm and relaxation by verbal suggestions on the part of the practitioner; the hypnosis was used for psychotherapeutic processes that do not need to be specifically explained here. In doing so, the patients experienced intense inner experiences, which allowed the relationships to themselves, to relatives familiar from the biography (father, mother, etc.) and the religious relationship to God to be experienced subjectively.

This created a dense therapeutic relationship context and the patients experienced intensive therapeutic and spiritual experiences, which the author, as the practitioner, was allowed to share. The author experienced intensive encounters with God during the therapeutic accompaniment of the patients in a state of hypnosis[24], partly as an encounter with Christ or metaphorically as healing light or healing color. The patients experienced intense inner healing sensations, feelings of deep love and acceptance, protection and security.

These impressive experiences in therapeutic practice prompted the author to empirically investigate the phenomenon of the healing power of faith in psychotherapy in the form of selected individual case studies in order to find out how the healing power of faith is subjectively experienced and how it works individually.

These extraordinary inner experiences of these patients prompted the author to choose the topic "The Resource and Healing Power of Faith in Psychotherapy" as the topic of this thesis and determine the subject of this investigation.

2 research interest

It is to be found out through the empirical investigation, what is the resource and healing power of faith, which help the patient with the mental suffering[25] to deal better, to get out of the suffering and a positive reorientation in mental well-being[26] to experience.

2.1 Research question and aim

In this context, the following aspects should also be examined in more detail:

To what extent have relaxation and positive suggestions been able to help patients in self-treatment and hypnotherapy to experience and experience the resource and healing power of their subjective beliefs for mental wellbeing?

How was and is the personal resource and healing power of faith experienced and which emotional and physical states were experienced in the process? The aim is to examine in more detail how the individual patient, through her subjective belief, can help in the situation of emotional suffering for herself and in hypnotherapy[27] has experienced. This addresses the 2 dimensions of self-help as autotherapy and external help as heterotherapy.

How was and is one's own relationship with God experienced?

What is the personal image of God and what does the individual patient believe in?

To what extent do positive suggestions help you to feel more trust, hope and love in yourself and in your own life?

Is there a subjectively experienced different "reality of a positive suggestion that contains God as a word and thus verbalizes the reference to transcendence, and one that does not include God?

Is healing power also experienced in prayer?

Becomes a healing force in the church too[28] experienced?[29]

Another special meaning and relevance for salutogenesis is the spiritual healing power of faith. Murken describes the paradigm shift from psychopathology to salutogenesis as follows:

"In the last 20 years there has been a change of perspective within psychology from the question of the origin of mental illness (psychopathogenesis) to the question of the condition and maintenance of mental health (salutogenesis)."[30]

With regard to health-promoting factors (resources), a distinction is made between personal and contextual resources (extrapersonal).[31]

In the opinion of the author, faith as an intrapersonal resource has a special health-promoting effect.

With regard to faith, a theological distinction is made between two aspects, on the one hand the content aspect (fides quae creditur[32]), which encompasses the contents of faith, the knowledge of faith, and on the other hand the aspect of relationship (fides qua creditur), which describes the manner of faith and the practical relationship between people and God and their fellow human beings.[33]

Pompey describes the two dimensions of faith with the following words: "´ Whoever believes with the heart (fides qua creditur) and confesses with the mouth (fides quae creditur) will achieve justice (successful life relationships) and salvation (life in abundance) ´ (Rom 10,10) ... "[34]

In addition to this theological meaning of belief, belief is also understood here in a psychological sense, namely in the sense of holding it to be true: "But belief means nothing other than holding a certain fact or a desired state as true and realized."[35]

The aim is to investigate to what extent personal belief can develop a healing power in self-help (autotherapeutic) and in psychotherapy (heterotherapeutic) for the individual in order to get out of a mental suffering situation and to find subjective well-being. Here, both the psychological and the spiritual, respectively. religious dimension can be empirically investigated. In the three case studies, the time frame includes the time before, during and after therapy.

2.2 Delimitation

What cannot be examined in this study are the concrete therapeutic processes and the interrelationship of intrapsychic and transcendental realities and the associated therapeutic beneficial effects that have occurred in the three individual therapies; This does not affect the specific catamnestic question of what has changed for the patient in her own life since the therapy.

In this work, too, no dedicated critical examination of Murphy, Freitag and other authors of positive thinking can be made, as this would go beyond the scope.

Rather, the peculiarity of the healing power of faith in psychotherapy and the subjectively experienced phenomena are to be empirically investigated by means of 3 individual case studies using content analysis according to Mayring.

Before the empirical part of the study is presented, some theories from the literature should be presented below.

3 theories on the research topic "Resource and healing power of faith in psychotherapy".

Preliminary remark:

The theories presented below are those that are particularly relevant to the author's treatment concept on the one hand and to the subject of the investigation on the other. Since the present study examines different dimensions and aspects of the resource and healing power of belief in psychotherapy, for which the author did not find a comprehensive theoretical description in the literature, it was necessary to select several theories, each with different emphases and Nuances contribute relevant aspects to the present topic. The presentation of the theories by Murphy and Freitag is of particular importance because, as explained above, they were relevant to the content of the therapies practiced for both the patient and the author. As far as the other theories are concerned, a selection had to be made here as well, since a complete description of all theories cannot be provided within the scope of this work. Because the present work is an empirical investigation, in which no hypothesis-testing verification (for more on the methodology see below ...), but inductively with the help of the qualitative content analysis according to Mayring (see below ...) is to be researched based on the 3 interviews , in which the resource and healing power of belief in the 3 patients is subjective. Therefore, the selected theories are only referred to in relation to the relevant aspects for the present empirical study, of which the following should be mentioned in particular:

Resource and healing power of faith, subjective belief and subjective experience of the healing power of faith, subconscious, relaxation, positive suggestion, mental well-being, image of God, relationship with God, hypnotherapy, prayer.

3.1 Joseph Murphy: The Power of Your Subconscious

3.1.1 Causality of positive and negative thoughts

starting point[36] for Murphy is the ability of the individual to choose on the mental level and to be able to decide whether he wants to have life-promoting (positive) or life-negating (negative) thoughts in his mind. The primacy of spirit over matter, as well as an absolute causality between the cause of the type of thinking (whether positive or negative) and success in the material (body, health or illness, wealth or poverty etc.) is postulated: "Whatever You experience and do, all events and circumstances in your existence are reactions of the subconscious to your thoughts. "[37] The subconscious plays a particularly important role in this: "If you think good, then good comes out of it, while bad thoughts lead to bad. That ... is how your mind works.

3.1.2 Function of the subconscious

What we want to keep as the decisive point is the fact that the subconscious immediately begins to realize every inspiration received ... that the subconscious submits to both good and bad thoughts and works accordingly. Negative ideas therefore bring failure, disappointment and misfortune. However, if your thinking habits are harmonious and positive, health, success and prosperity will accompany you . Once you have learned to put your thoughts and feelings on the right track, peace of mind and physical health will surely come on their own. Whatever you claim and regard in your mind as already realized, your subconscious will accept as an already existing fact and carry it out as quickly as possible. It is up to you to convince your subconscious, and the law inherent in it will ensure health, harmony ... as desired. In Their[38] The power of command lies in the hands, you give the commands - and your subconscious will obey and faithfully realize your inspirations. The law of your mind is ...: Your conscious thoughts and ideas evoke an essentially identical reaction from your subconscious. "

Between thoughts and feelings there is a primacy of thoughts and thus the possibility of the mentally suffering person to influence his own emotional life with the help of the choice and control of his own thoughts: "Your feelings correspond to your thoughts. Thinking you therefore have the power to decide everything Banish your mind that could disturb your inner balance. "[39]

As for the quality of positive thoughts, Murphy emphasizes, "... to give space only to thoughts and ideas that are beneficial, wholesome and fill the soul with happiness and joy."[40] A biblical reference[41] Murphy relates to the Apostle Paul: "St. Paul reveals to us ... how one can imagine oneself in a life full of dynamic power and bliss:" Besides, brethren, what is true, what is honorable, what is just, what is pure, lovable, what is attractive, what virtue and praiseworthy things exist, direct your mind. " Philippians 4: 8 "[42]

3.1.3 Image of God

The relationship with God in the consciousness of people who want to make spiritual well-being and health a reality in their lives through healing thoughts and ideas is a fundamental necessity for Murphy. This is justified by the fact that God is seen as the principle of life and salvation in every person:

"... God is life and this life principle flows through every human being ..."[43]

"..." The doctor bandages the wound and God heals it. ""[44]

The peculiarity of Murphy's concept of God is the positioning of God in the individual soul: "The highest and best in you is God."[45] Here it is especially important to trust the healing power of God: "... trusting oneself infinite healing power to entrust, which lives in the deepest soul of every human being. "[46]

The cognitive and emotional visualization of a positive image of God is important: "But as soon as thinking and feeling are dominated by the idea of ​​a God of love, as soon as man sees in God the loving Father who rules over him, who cares for him, guides him , sustains and strengthens, this conception of God will be impressed on the subconscious and become the source of innumerable blessings. "[47]

Access to the individual subconscious is therefore of great importance.

In addition to various other functions of the subconscious, including the regulation of biological processes in the human body, e.g. breathing rate, heartbeat, digestion, etc., the subconscious is assigned a special causal healing power for body and soul: "Your own subconscious offers the solution for every problem and holds it Cause of every effect ... Your subconscious has a miraculous healing power that allows body and soul to recover. "[48]

3.1.4 Belief

In order for this healing power, which is inherent in the subconscious, to have an effect, faith is required, which enables access to this unconscious healing power, and is a prerequisite for it.[49]

Murphy defines belief as the holding of a certain fact or a desired state to be true and realized.[50] The subjective belief is the unity of thoughts and feelings[51]," » and according to your faith it shall happen to you «. Matthew 9:29. "[52] Referring to the making of prayers, Murphy postulates a "law of belief", regardless of the subject's content and religion, as a psychological function when there is a subconscious response to the person's thoughts and ideas.[53]

Faith is the way to the "universal healing power" of the subconscious.[54]

Murphy postulates a single healing power, the names of which are different, God, life, nature, all-wisdom and the power of the subconscious are just different names for this healing power.[55] The miraculous healings of Jesus on the sick were only possible through the faith of Jesus, the sick and Jesus' knowledge of the subconscious forces.[56]

Referring to the healing of the blind, Mt 9, 28-30[57]where Jesus asked the sick: "> Do you think I am this [the healing, d.V.] can do ? <", those who affirmed this and Jesus said:"> According to your faith, it should happen to you! <"[58] Murphy deduces that Jesus was addressing the subconscious of the blind directly with His words[59].

"Her belief consisted in the high expectation ..., in the inner conviction that a miracle would occur and her prayers would be answered. And so it happened."[60] For a successful healing this belief is a conditio sine qua non, "which was always and everywhere put by Jesus Christ ...: Belief! Again and again one reads in the Bible: It will happen to you according to your belief."[61]

"Because the oldest doctor on earth, the most universal healing method in the world is - completely independent of the respective religious affiliation - the belief."[62]

3.1.5 Autosuggestion as self-help

For the sick or sufferer who wants to get well, it is important through powerful suggestions[63] to influence his subconscious, as this activates his own healing powers.[64]

The autosuggestion can be used as an effective autotherapeutic method for the sufferer, for example to get rid of anxiety and

solve other negative emotional states and find confidence in yourself.[65]

"We understand autosuggestions to be self-influencing through very specific and targeted thoughts or ideas."[66]

In order to impress suggestions on the subconscious, it is helpful to relax first. Murphy cites the example of a singer who was afraid that no one would like her singing.[67]

The following procedure helped the singer to get rid of this fear:

She withdrew to her room in order to be able to switch off from the outside world, made herself comfortable in an armchair[68], "... relaxed and closed her eyes. In this way she put body and mind into a state of rest. Physical relaxation also calms the mind and makes it more receptive to suggestions. "I sing adorable. I am full of calm, serenity and self-confidence."[69] this statement slowly, calmly, and fervently five to ten times. She did these mental exercises three times a day, the last time just before going to bed. After a week she was calm and confident about her future. "[70]

Murphy makes it clear with this example that the first step is switching off from everyday life, the path to relaxation[71], into the inner world is the soulful affirmation of positive suggestions that inspire confidence and the principle of repetition.

Because it is only through constant repetition that the positive suggestions are impressed on the subconscious, which takes them for perception and lets them become reality.[72]

By using autosuggestions, the sufferer has the ability to positively shape his own subconscious and to experience healing: "Our subconscious is always accessible to the influence of suggestion. As soon as you relax physically and mentally, your conscious thoughts sink into the subconscious. . and thanks to its creative dynamism, your wish will come true. "[73]

A particularly effective method is the visualization of the target state longed for by the autosugger, since the subconscious accepts such images, which are anticipated in the here and now as already fulfilled reality with a believing heart, and urges the realization of this desired state. Murphy calls this the "Imagery Technique" and the "Film Method".[74] "As soon as you can get a clear picture of your goal, the miraculous power of your subconscious will create the necessary conditions for its realization."[75]

3.1.6 The "scientific prayer" as an affirmative method

Personal prayer is also a personal resource of the sufferer in times of need, which develops strength.[76]

However, in contrast to the supplication to God, in which the believer asks God for help to free him from suffering and leaves it to God's will whether this happens, Murphy understands prayer to have a very specific content and gives it a special meaning under the Term "scientific prayer".

This is defined as the "... harmonious interaction of the conscious and subconscious mental forces, which are established by means of scientifically proven methods[77] be used to achieve a specific goal. "[78]

The principle of absolute causality - healing thoughts and ideas as cause, health as their effect - is inherent in this "scientific prayer"; Effect, action and reaction heard. "[79]

Elsewhere Murphy refers to the Bible verse at Mt. 7.7 "» Ask and it will be given to you; Seek and you shall find; knock and it will be opened for you. "... These words hold out the prospect of the fulfillment of all your wishes ... The omniscience of your subconscious will always and immediately react to your conscious thinking. A stone will not be given to one who asks for bread. "[80]

This type of prayer as a positive assertion is also referred to by Murphy as the "affirmative method" and develops effective power through the assertion of so-called "objective truths".[81] One such "objective truth", according to Murphy, is health, because "health is the true state of being."[82]

The following examples of the concretion of the "affirmative method" or also the affirmation are mentioned here: "Divine wisdom guides me on my way, and divine blessing rests on everything I begin today. Divine love surrounds and protects me and I step into the light. "[83]

The certainty of the absolute regularity that the person praying can bring about the desired state of health, for example, can be seen as a specific competence in the sense of the art.of coping: "Knowing the infinite power within you that can fulfill all your desires gives you unshakable self-confidence and calm confidence."[84]

3.1.7 Words of salvation in the Holy Scriptures

Another source of a healing reality for those who suffer are certain psalms, especially the 23rd, 27th and 91st Psalm, the Song of Songs, 1 Corinthians 13[85] "and other Bible passages that richly fill the heart and mind ..."[86]

Murphy recommends that the spouses take turns praying these Bible passages aloud, as well as taking other measures such as forgiving each other before bed, and praying these Bible passages aloud, as this will make the marriage beneficial.[87]

It is clear from this that Murphy ascribes healing power and effect to the words of the Scriptures for the sufferer and the sufferer and the practice of prayer[88] ascribes eminent importance in people's everyday lives.

3.2 Erhard F. Freitag: Power center subconscious

Erhard[89] Friday is a student of Murphy's[90] and has adapted his teaching. Going beyond Murphy, Freitag uses the Katathyme pictorial life according to Leuner and hypnosis to resolve unconscious conflicts[91] added as psychotherapeutic treatment methods, which should be made clear in the following explanations.

As far as the content of Murphy's teaching is concerned, which Freitag varies in his own words, but essentially reproduces the same as Murphy, reference is essentially made to the primary source detailed above in order to avoid unnecessary duplication.

The book of Freitag is - like that of Murphy - intended as a life help book for advice seekers and sufferers: "With this book I would like to pave the way for the spiritual strength that each of us holds within, and to try to help you to help yourself. "[92]

In the following, only the contents are to be presented, provided that they contain further developments beyond Murphy's theory and can be crystallized as Freitag's proprium.

Like Murphy, Freitag assumes that every person redeems himself[93] can:

"We can redeem ourselves and become more perfect people, if we really want to. Our Creator has put all the potential for it into us ... Salvation is already there - it waits in us for the day when we will say to us, to God and the world and to our life! "[94]

"When you realize that you are your own savior ..."[95]

3.2.1 Trance and relaxation

In order to positively influence the subconscious through suggestions, the state of relaxation is a prerequisite, which is easiest to achieve through a trance[96]: "All tensions, whether mentally or in the body, must first be released if we want to intervene in our inner processes with autosuggestion. In a restful, resting position ... we create the ideal conditions to come closer to our previously hidden unconscious depths ... Suggestions that are given by a therapist in this resting position or that are spoken or even just thought have a far more superior effect than the same suggestion could achieve with full day-time consciousness. "[97]

The relaxation technique is a learning process and a prerequisite for the success of suggestion therapy based on the principle of positive thinking.[98]

3.2.2 Suggestion training

For the "suggestion training"[99] Friday sets up 7 rules, 4 of which should be quoted here:

"1. The better you relax, the easier it is for suggestions to enter your subconscious.
2. Your subconscious reacts very precisely to words. Suggest in the direct, presently experienced imagination » I am", even if the goals are still to be achieved (e.g. getting well, being successful, learning to love)
3. If possible, translate your suggestions into pictorial ideas. You adjust yourself to the understanding of the subconscious, to which a picture "says" more than a thousand words.
4. A single suggestion has very little effect and only repeating your suggestions two to three times a day for ten to twenty minutes will lead you to your goal. Especially before going to sleep, when the gate to your subconscious is just beginning to open, is the best time for your work. "[100]

Freitag recommends the visualization of what is desired in the here and now as an already fulfilled idea in the conscious mind in order to convince the subconscious.[101]

3.2.3 Autosuggestions

From the many general suggestions that Freitag recommends to his readers as autosuggestions, the following are a few examples:

"I am strong and free. "," I am full of harmony and love. I love myself and thank my higher self for the strength from my midst ... "," Harmony and love permeate my whole being and my whole being. I am healthy and free. I am penetrated by positive life force, which dissolves everything dark and oppressive in my body and my emotional world. "," The perfection of God is now expressed through my body. The idea of ​​perfect health now fills my subconscious. God created me in his perfect image, and my subconscious now creates my body anew - in complete accordance with the perfect image in the spirit of God. God thinks, speaks and acts through me! "[102]

3.2.4 The beneficial effects of positive suggestions

Through the repeated impregnation of the subconscious with beneficial positive suggestions, a reprogramming and a surrogation of negative, disease-causing unconscious attitudes takes place: "... positive suggestions replace those ideas that weaken us and thereby cause errors and diseases. My therapists do not suppress anything, but develop a new, better quality for your existence. The old goes so that the new can come. "[103]

Friday also makes reference to the Holy Scriptures: "The Bible says that God is a consuming fire that dissolves everything that is not in accordance with him. It is the same with an intense, positive suggestion. Everything that does not correspond to its statement, will be dissolved. "[104]

The wholesome positive suggestions have a relation to the divine reality or also to the divine order, which is ontologically innate to the individual by God: "Positive thinking leads you on the God-willed level to higher perfection, which corresponds to your nature and the meaning of your existence. "[105]

The change from suffering happens by letting go of old ideas that promote suffering and by accepting positive suggestions, which activate the healing power inherent in the individual soul and thus lead to the longed-for love, health, harmony and success.[106]

3.2.5 Hypnosis

In order to impress these positive suggestions on the subconscious, hypnosis is the method of choice:

"In this trance state[107] the readiness and the receptivity for suggestions are particularly increased. Through hypnosis, filtering and evaluation processes in the brain can be targeted and controlled. The suggestions can induce thoughts and actions and influence physical states. "[108]

Friday defines hypnosis as "a special form of wakefulness"[109], which is associated with a state of concentration and selective perception with deeper emotional feelings.[110]

In the hypnotic state, the patient comes into contact with his own spiritual healing power:

"The most important goal of my therapy is to let the patient feel their own strength and their own depth, which then helps them to solve their problems ... Positive thoughts increase your psychological potency, with which you can then almost every imaginable (psychological) Resolve errors. "[111]

"In the depths of our spirit, the good and the truth of us humans are at home, there is the divine source of our life force."[112]

This reference of a hynotherapy to the transcendental divine dimension as a source of healing is probably what Friday also means with the term "spiritual hypnotherapy"[113]which "is the solution for what has burdened you so far [be, d.V.]."[114]

3.2.6 Katathymes picture life according to Leuner

But even if Friday hereby proclaims the healing effect of positive suggestions, this principle is supplemented elsewhere by therapeutic work on unconscious conflicts or negative attitudes as the necessity for positive suggestions to take effect.

In order to determine the unconscious complexes or conflicts of a patient and to address them therapeutically, Freitag uses the therapeutic method of the catathymic image life developed by Hanscarl Leuner, which is also used for diagnostics:

"In order to grasp a person's problems, a hypnotherapist only needs to immerse them in their catathymic imagery (katathym: Mood effect; Effect of an affect-stressed, repressed complex on the soul). From the depths of the soul repressed and oppressive events can arise again and thus contribute to conflict resolution ... his dream images [those of the patient, d.V. ] ... open up to him even in the half-awake, slightly trance-like state, in which he can even talk to the therapist - as with light hypnosis. "[115]

With the help of the catathymic picture life, regression or the return to past situations and experiences, which underlie an unconscious conflict, is also possible.[116]

Mental suffering has its causa in unconscious conflicts that are repressed.[117]

The Katathyme picture life helps to break down mental blockages and neurotic bad postures.[118]

By supplementing the suggestion therapy by means of the catathymic picture life, with which unconscious sources of conflict are therapeutically grasped and processed, Freitag relativizes his postulate of positive thinking, which includes the primacy of thinking (consciousness) over the subconscious: "Our subconscious is the executive, our conscious mind decides, the subconscious carries it out."[119]

But if the subconscious could be influenced in this absolute stringency through positive thinking alone, the question arises why it is necessary to work with unconscious conflicts through the katathymatic image life at all. This shows a logical contradiction in the system of the Freitag theory, which he neither names nor can explain with his theory of positive thinking.

However, if we start from an interaction of unconscious and conscious processes and postulate a bicausal reality in the dialectical sense instead of a monocausal one, then this contradiction dissolves and therapeutic consequences can also be developed:

On the one hand, positive suggestions require therapeutic treatment of unconscious conflict cores and negative attitudes; on the other hand, new life-promoting attitudes can be anchored through positive suggestions. Both are healing processes of different dimensions in the patient's mental life that must be observed.

3.2.7 Image of God

Friday proclaims a God of love who exists in the individual himself:

"I believe that God is pure love, is pure forgiveness and granting. God is not angry, and because he has made us in his own image, we are like him divine in our core, out of love ... The Son of God is ours own spirit, and he is in the midst of us we are in the truest sense the Son of God with everything that creeps and flies ... "[120]

"The only God in existence is within yourself, is your self. "[121]

Here it becomes clear that Friday has a concept and image of God that deviates from the Christian religion:

On the one hand, Freitag equates God with the individual divine self, which in the final analysis would mean saying: I am God.

With the words of St. Paul "Do you not know that you are the temple of the Holy Spirit", the immanence of God through the Holy Spirit in man is also affirmed by the Christian faith. However, God cannot be reduced to this existence in the individual human being, but in His transcendence exceeds the individual human being. This is disregarded from Friday. The peculiarity of Jesus Christ as a divine person is also disregarded by the equation with the individual spirit or humans. The divine holy trinity of God the Father-Son and the Holy Spirit, which transcends the individually subjective human, is equalized with the human, there is no differentiation between the divine spark in man and God himself. The healing relationship with God exists after Friday exclusively individually and autonomously transsocial outside a religious community such as the church.

3.2.8 Church

The Christian Church is not a sacrament of salvation for Friday[122], but rather an institution that causes disease and causes disease per se:

"... the institution that should lead us most strongly beyond our material philosophy of life, uses its clerical power to stir up deep fears in the believers. Its claim to be God's mediator was underpinned by threats from the angry God, im Middle Ages with torture, today with less convincing arguments ... In the background knowledge of the infinite suffering that is spread in the name of God, in the knowledge of how many people the church is holding down, lies the reason why I am disappointed with this inadequate administration of Christianity have withdrawn. "[123]

Regardless of indisputable historical mistakes and sins that occurred in the name of the church and in the name of God, it is also a historical fact that through the charitable work of the church in the works of mercy and charity (e.g. hospitals, schools, orphanages ) many sufferers were helped even in the Middle Ages.

Even in relation to the past, Freitag's criticism of the church is one-sided and undifferentiated.

Today the love of God is particularly emphasized in the church services and the image of God of the merciful God is conveyed in the pastoral work, so that the reproach on Friday is an allegation outdated by reality and expresses the prejudice of a contemporary who is distant from the church. The fact that Friday gets along without a church and even meets God himself and is one with God is the consequence of Freitag's autonomous conception of God:

"I went ... without official help in search of myself, of my essence, and I met God ... When I was looking for God, I met myself because it is rightly said that the Father and I are ONE. I found it in me. "[124]

These statements make the extremely subjectivistic and abbreviated image of God clear.

3.3 Herbert Benson: Healing through Faith.

3.3.1 Healing Power of Faith

Benson[125] emphasizes the special healing power of faith in therapy for both the patient and the therapist and illustrates this with medical experiments in drug testing and the phenomenon of the effectiveness of placebos:

"... human belief gives placebo its power. The fact that the patient, his practitioner, or both believe in the therapy leads to better results."[126]

It is important that the patient and / or the practitioner believe in the success of the therapy, because this will mobilize considerable healing powers in the patient.[127]

On the one hand, the effectiveness of belief is empirically confirmed, on the other hand, the relationship aspect of the belief of the practitioner and patient is addressed, which may have a potentiating effect in the therapeutic relationship and healing process.

Benson draws attention to the spiritual dimension of the relationship in earlier medicine:

"In early medicine ... the relationship between healer and patient is sacred and mystical."[128]

The individual belief of the sufferer is a resource in the sense of a personally available help for self-help by virtue of the belief in a higher transcendent power that heals: "With the help of this belief, a fundamental human instinct, many people free themselves from pain and illness."[129]

"... the belief in a supreme being is in any case a highly effective healer."[130]

Faith acts holistically as a healing force on mind, body and soul.[131]

Benson posits a genetic programming of every human being to believe in God and to practice faith as a human survival instinct from birth[132].

This biological belief resource is independent of the existence of God.[133]

Benson's concept of God is not identical with the Christian religion, but includes all world religions as well as all "gods and spirits" ever worshiped by humans in human history.[134] Regardless of the content of belief and the respective naming of the transcendental power, the results of subjective belief are the same: "In my scientific observations I have learned that the results of belief are always the same, regardless of what name the Infinite Absolute is given or what theological direction one follows. "[135]

3.3.2 Specific healing power of belief in God

However, Benson postulates a special healing power of faith in God: "Faith in God seems to have particularly great healing power, because" God "is limitless according to all definitions known to me."[136]

Regardless of religion and denomination, the subjective belief that God heals is essential, as Jeffrey S. Levin describes it: "" Even the mere belief that religion or God is curative presumably brings about positive health effects. . «".[137]

3.3.3 Your faith helped you "in the miraculous healings of Jesus

With regard to the Christian religion, Benson refers to the healing reports of Jesus in the Holy Scriptures and the words of Jesus "Your faith has helped you" about the bloody woman in Mk 5, 25-34 (34), the leper in Lk 17: 12-19 (19) and to the blind man in Lk 18, 35-43 (42).[138] "What the evangelists want to tell us is obvious: Faith heals and makes the body healthy."[139]

Tom Harper emphasizes that the gospel is essentially about healing: "" A careful study of the gospels reveals that they are essentially all about healing. ""[140]

3.3.4 "Self-Care"

Starting from the empirical reality of belief as a resource and healing power for the sick, Benson emphasizes the coping aspect, namely the "power of the individual to take care of himself and to heal himself."[141]

Instead of feeling powerless at the mercy of one's own suffering or just relying on the help of others, the patient himself has the ability and also the self-responsibility, "... through healthy nutrition, exercise, relaxation exercises and stress management [zu, dV] to do."[142] Benson calls this coping "self-care".[143]

Benson points out that according to a Gallup poll in the United States, 26% of the population already practice meditation and relaxation exercises[144] ; this shows the particular relevance of meditation and relaxation exercises in the practical life of many people in the USA who do themselves good with them.

Thus the sufferer himself has the possibility to get out of the suffering with the help of his faith and to become healthy. This competence of the sufferer is closely connected with the hope of healing and Benson refers to the enormous importance of the principle of hope as a component of healing, referring to Seneca: "The Roman philosopher Seneca, who lived from 5 to 65 AD, emphasized how what is important is hope. " Desiring a cure is part of the cure, "he wrote."[145]

3.3.5 "Well-being remembered"

This subjective belief and hope for healing corresponds on the physical level to what Benson called "remembered well-being" as a separate phenomenon.[146]

Benson discovered this "remembered well-being" as a "scientifically proven source of inner healing power and calls it" remembered well-being ""[147]. This "remembered well-being" includes the ability of every person to "... remember" the calm and confidence that go hand in hand with health and happiness. This not only gives us spiritual comfort, this memory is also physical. "[148]

Thoughts can be used to provoke "remembered well-being", which nerve cells in the brain activate and impress them with emotionally satisfying experiences and events.[149] "Hope and positive expectations in turn generate remembered well-being - the neurosignature messages of healing that mobilize the body's reserves and defenses."[150] Benson defines neurosignatures as "the pattern of brain activity required to remember a picture ... All the experiences and emotions in our lives have neurosignatures, shorthand notes that the brain stores and retrieves."[151]

However, it is not only possible to activate the information already stored in the brain ("remembered well-being"), but the brain can be reprogrammed by means of suitable new thoughts and new information[152], so that health-promoting psychophysical processes can be initiated and promoted:

"If we change our consciousness ... we can improve our health decisively."[153]

3.3.6 The healing effect of the "relaxation reaction"

In addition to the "remembered well-being", Benson discovered the "relaxation reaction" as a beneficial physical state of rest that everyone can consciously bring about.[154] This physical calming down is a "... state in which the blood pressure drops and the heart and respiratory rate as well as the metabolism drop. The relaxation reaction can be brought about by a simple form of mental concentration or other meditation techniques and has a very positive long-term effect on health and wellbeing. "[155]

The relaxation reaction has a cathartic and a regenerative effect on mind and body and opens up access to new ideas and suggestions on the inner soul, as is also possible in hypnosis.[156]

Benson emphasizes that this relaxation reaction, which every sufferer can use as an aid to self-help for their own health, can be brought about by a variety of different methods, in addition to the meditation techniques already mentioned, also through prayer, autogenic training, progressive muscle relaxation and others.[157] Benson differentiates between religious and secular methods or exercises that can provoke the relaxation response, with both having in common a concentration on repetitive activity and a passive attitude towards disturbing thoughts.[158]

To activate the relaxation response, Benson recommends that patients use pleasant or calming words or phrases as an object of concentration .[159]

[...]



[1] According to the report on the situation of psychiatry in the FRG - on psychiatric and psychotherapeutic / psychosomatic care of the population (Psychiatrie-Enquete 1975), every third German citizen has suffered from a mental illness, 10-20% are looking for a doctor because of mental crises or Diseases per year; quoted in Pompey, ders. (ed.), in: Caritas, The Human Face of Faith, Studies on Theology and Practice of Caritas and Social Pastoral, Vol. 10, Würzburg, real, 1997, The suffering person and solidarity der Menschen, 19-61, here: 24.

[2] Quoted from Edith Stein, In the locked garden of the soul, Freiburg, Herder, 1998, 53.

[3] Murphy, Joseph, The Power of Your Subconscious, 36th ed., Geneva, Ariston, 1986.

[4] Freitag, Erhard F., Power Center Subconscious, Munich, Goldmann, 1998.

3 Peale, Norman Vincent, The Power of Positive Thinking, Bergisch Gladbach: Bastei / Lübbe, 1986.

4 Carnegie, Dale, Don't worry - live !, 62nd edition, Munich: Scherz, 1993.

5 On esotericism, the New Age and the individual's search for help see Rotzetter, Anton, Neue Innerlichkeit, Mainz, Grünewald, 1992, 11-24. On the search for meaning and the need for inner experience through New Age see also Margret Zimmermann, Spirituality and Positive Thinking, Two Concepts of Life in Comparison. An empirical study (dissertation), Europäische Hochschulschriften, Series 6, Vol. 500, Frankfurt, Lang, 1995, 1-16, here: 10f.

6 Often with violent criticism of "the" church, e.g. Erhard F. Freitag, who accuses the church of scaring believers through threats and makes them responsible for the suffering of the mentally ill: cf. Freitag, op. Cit., 248f. ; it is not the place here to go into this blanket anti-church position.

[9] see Ebertz, Michael N., Church in the headwind. On the upheaval in the religious landscape, 3rd edition, Freiburg, Herder, 1999, esp. 110f: Ebertz states a growing privatization, individualization and autocentricity and dispersion of the religious.

[10] especially Murphy, Friday.

[11] Murphy, loc. Cit.

[12] Bandler, Richard and Grindler, John, New Paths of Short-Term Therapy, Neurolinguistic Programs, 10th edition, Paderborn, Junfermann, 1992.

[13] Leuner, Hanscarl, textbook on the catathymic picture life, basic level, intermediate level, upper level, 2nd edition, Bern, Huber, 1987.

[14] For a detailed justification this Treatment concept and a discussion with other schools of psychotherapy must be avoided here; the term "subconscious" is used especially by Murphy and Freitag, see the description in the theoretical part, while the various schools of depth psychology speak of the "unconscious". Both terms are used synonymously here.

[15] Hypnotherapy according to Milton Erickson is particularly oriented towards the resource function of the unconscious in psychotherapy, cf. Peter, Burkhard, Hypnotherapie, in: Kraiker, Christoph et al., Psychotherapieführer, 5th edition, Munich, Beck, 1998, 149-168, here: 151f., 158.

[16] Duden Vol. 1, spelling, 21st edition, Mannheim, Dudenverlag, 1996.

[17] Duden Vol. 7, The Dictionary of Origin, 2nd Edition, Mannheim, Dudenverlag, 1989.

[18] Ibid.

[19] Pschyrembel, Dictionary Naturopathy, 2nd edition, Berlin, de Gruyter, 2000

[20] In contrast to the purely psychotherapeutically practiced hypnotherapy, "spiritual" should make clear the transcendent relationship to God as a healing force and clarify the integration of religious reality in the context of hypnotherapy.

In the context of the author's therapeutic concept and in relation to the therapies on which this investigation is based, this inherent connection between psychotherapy and spirituality is meant even if the adjective "spiritual" is not explicitly attached to the noun "hypnotherapy". An overview of the various methods of different hypnotherapeutic concepts and their contents can be found at: Svoboda, Tomas, Das Hypnosebuch. Individual forms of application for self-help and therapeutic practice, Munich, Kösel, 1984; see also Scharl, Hubert, Modern Hypnosis Techniques for Medicines, 5th edition, Munich, Müller & Steinicke, 1992.

[21] The designation A, hereinafter also B and C, serves to protect the anonymity of the patients who kindly made themselves available for the present case study. These designations can also be found in the empirical part of this work in order to distinguish the 3 patients and to be able to assign their statements.

[22] The subjective descriptions of experiences and sensations of the patients reproduced here and below are taken from the minutes made by the author in the patient files immediately after the sessions.

[23] In hypnosis, a sexual abuse situation through her own father was revealed, which the patient relived in the regression.

[24] see also the case description » Visit to God " in Leuner, op. cit., 200: A KB (KB = abbreviation for Katathymes Bilderleben) therapist encounters God in the form of a man dressed in yellow who reveals himself to be God.

[25] Mental suffering is understood here as a subjectively emotionally experienced state such as fear, lack of self-esteem, powerlessness, lack of love; on the genesis of suffering from a relational theological point of view, see Pompey, Heinrich (ed.), Theological Understanding of Life and Suffering, of Solidarity and Help-A charitable-diaconal creed, in: Caritas- The human face of faith, studies on theology and practice der Caritas und Sozialen Pastoral, Vol. 10, Würzburg, echter, 1997, 321-357, here: 322-334: Pompey clarifies the fundamental importance and effect of a deep relationship disorder between man and God for emotional suffering. These and other causalities of suffering, which are important for a deeper understanding of nosology, do not need to be discussed further in the present context.

[26] on the context of religiosity and psychological well-being see Grom, Bernhard, Religionspsychologie, Munich, Kösel, 1992, 113ff. ; Benson coined the term "remembered well-being", which describes the phenomenon of mental well-being, see Benson, Herbert, Heilung durch Glaubens, Munich, Heyne, 1997, 29ff.

[27] In the following, for the sake of simplicity, the term hypnotherapy is used instead of "spiritual hypnotherapy", especially since this is the one commonly used in the literature; see also above, footnote 20.

[28] Church is understood here as the house of God, which the believer visits alone or in holy mass.

[29] Since all 3 patients are Catholics, the question of whether the church is experienced as a place of salvation is interesting and relevant.

[30] Murks; Sebastian, Relationship to God and Mental Health. The development of a model and its empirical verification, Münster, Waxmann, 1998, 80.

[31] See Murken, ibid.

[32] To distinguish between fides quae creditur (content aspect of belief) and fides qua creditur (relationship aspect of belief) see in detail: Pompey, Heinrich, Relationship Theology - The Mutuality of Theological and Psychological "Realities" and the biblical-theological contextualization of life and Experiences of suffering. In: Ders. (Ed.), Caritas - The human face of faith, Würzburg, echter, 1997, 92-127, here: 106f.

[33] see Pompey, op. cit., 107

[34] ibid.

[35] Murphy, supra, 107

[36] so the title of the book of the same name, see Murphy, op. cit .; This life help book is intended to enable the reader to free himself from mental and physical suffering, cf. ibid., 14.

[37] A.a.O., 22.

[38]Italic What is printed in quotations is the original printing by the quoted authors.

[39] loc. cit., 199.

[40] loc. cit., 33f.

[41] Murphy has one Abundance of quotations from the Holy Scriptures, here only a few can be cited as examples.

[42] Ders., Loc. Cit., 176.

[43] loc. cit., 195.

[44] loc. cit., 15.

[45] loc. cit., 189.

[46] loc. cit., 15.

[47] loc. cit., 195.

[48] loc. cit., 21.

[49] cf. loc. cit., 64.

[50] cf. loc. cit., 107.

[51] loc. cit., 134.

[52] ibid.

[53] See loc. Cit., 17.

[54] cf. loc. cit., 64.

[55] cf. loc. cit., 71.

[56] cf. loc. cit., 62.

[57] cf., loc. cit., 61.

[58] Biblical quotations from Murphy, ibid.

[59] Ibid.

[60] Ibid.

[61] Ibid.

[62] Ibid.

[63] Lat. subgerere = to come up from below, to whisper in, cf. Duden, vol. 7, op.

[64] See loc. Cit., 64.

[65] cf. loc. cit., 38.

[66] loc. cit., 37.

[67] cf. loc. cit., 38.

[68] ibid.

[69] See also loc. Cit., 88.

[70] Ibid.

[71] See also loc. Cit., 138.

[72] cf. loc. cit., 91.

[73] loc. cit., 219.

[74] see loc. cit., 84ff.

[75] loc. cit., 141.

[76] ders., 16.

[77] These are not described in more detail in this context; cf. but also ders., 83.

[78] A.a.O., 15.

[79] ders., 23rd; A detailed discussion of this thesis cannot be entered into here in the context of this work, but from the point of view of the Christian faith it must be asked critically whether God, as the one addressed by the person praying, is not being instrumentalized according to the exclusive will of the person praying; How can the person praying know whether his wish corresponds to the will of God? What if God knows better what is good and healthy for the person who is praying?

[80] loc. cit., 83f.

[81] Ders., 90.

[82] Ibid .; in contrast to this absolutization of health in the polarity of health and illness as so-called true states of being, it should be critically questioned whether illness and death do not also represent objective realities of being; empirical reality testifies to the reality of health, illness and death as realities of life that are not available to man alone; cf. in detail Schockenhoff, Eberhard, Ethik des Lebens. A theological outline, 2nd edition, Mainz, Grünewald, 1998, 215-221; Schockenhoff makes it clear that life can not only consist of health, but that illness is also part of life and opposes a utopian definition of health, which is also the basis of the WHO definition of health as the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being.

[83] these affirmations are part of an auto-suggestion in the morning, loc. cit., 176.

[84] ibid, 134; critical of this principle of the New Thought Movement, to which Norman V. Peale also belongs, cf. Grom, op. cit., 142f., which makes the absolutization of the "Power of prayer " reinterpreting this as "restricted white magic", bypassing the free will of God; on the differentiation between "white magic" and religiosity see Grom, op. cit., 140f .; Margret Zimmermann examined the concepts of positive thinking and spirituality in a comparative empirical study, see this., op.

[85] cf. loc. cit., 172.

[86] ibid.

[87] See loc. Cit., 171f.

[88] We cannot go into the various forms and contents of prayer in more detail here.

[89] So also the title of the book of the same name from Freitag, op.

[90] see Friday, op. cit., p. 15 (foreword)

[91] Murphy only referred to hypnosis to make the effectiveness of the subjective belief of the hypnotized person clear; for this he gives examples of experiments in hypnosis that others had carried out, cf. Murphy, op. Cit., 64; in particular the experiments by Bernheim, loc. cit., 67f .; Murphy previously pointed out that different treatment methods had led to healing, and that the healing principle common to all is the universal healing power of the subconscious, cf.loc. cit., 63f .; on the other hand, Freitag claims that Murphy hypnotized for decades, as if Murphy had been a hypnotist; We cannot go into a more detailed criticism of these divergent findings here.

[92] Friday, loc. Cit., 15f.

[93] on the criticism of the Christian faith see Baumgartner, Isidor, Pastoralpsychogie, 1st edition, Düsseldorf, Patmos, 1990, 81; Baumgartner opposes the pantheistic self-redemption theory of transpersonal psychology and psycho-religions with God's "descent" to people in Jesus Christ as Savior; on the theological differentiation of the beginning of the kingdom of God and the initial redemption in the here and now on the one hand as well as the complete redemption and perfection of man as an individual and of humanity through God in the eschatological end times cf.

[94] Friday, op. Cit., 48.

[95] loc. cit., 313.

[96] see ibid, 108; the word trance is used synonymously for hypnosis.

[97] loc. cit., 108f.

[98] see also, 110.

[99] Cf. the same, 114ff.

[100] Ibid, 115.

[101] cf. loc. cit., 239f.

[102] loc. cit., 125f.

[103] loc. cit., 150; cf. also the other, 186.

[104] Ders., 186; As a matter of principle, Freitag does not give the exact wording or the references in the text passages freely quoted by him; it is unclear whether here Dtn 4,24: "For the Lord your God is consuming fire." is meant. In the Holy Scriptures, this passage is in the context of the prohibition to form an image of God, cf. Dtn 4, 23f .; if Friday should mean this passage from the Bible, he has assumed a very free interpretation.

[105] loc. cit., 149.

[106] cf. loc. cit., 190f.

[107] Freitag uses trance and hypnosis synonymously.

[108] Ders., 154.

[109] ibid.

[110] See Friday, op. Cit., 161f.

[111] loc. cit., 172.

[112] loc. cit., 171f.

[113] cf. loc. cit., 191.

[114] Ibid.

[115] Friday, op. Cit., 201.

[116] See also, 218.

[117] See also, 269.

[118] cf. ders., 270f.

[119] Ders., 279.

[120] Friday, loc. Cit., 231f.

[121] ders., 234.

[122] This sacrament of salvation is described in the pastoral constitution Gaudium et Spes by the Second Vatican Council as follows, according to which the Church "... in Christ, as it were, the sacrament, that is, the sign and instrument for the most intimate union with God and for the unity of all humanity" is. See GS (42), quoted by Rahner, Karl and Vorgrimler, Herbert, Kleines Konzilskompendium, 27th edition, Freiburg, Herder, 1966.

[123] Friday, loc. Cit., 247ff.

[124] ders., 249.

[125] see the book of the same name by Benson, op. cit. in the title.

[126] Benson, op. Cit., Jan.

[127] Ders., 37.

[128] Of 133.

[129] Ders., 26.

[130] Ders., 358.

[131] see also, 27.

[132] See the same, 235.

[133] ibid, 237; we cannot go into a detailed discussion of this biological approach here.

[134] Ibid., 239.

[135] Ibid.

[136] Ibid.

[137] Quoted in Benson, op. Cit., 192.

[138] see Benson, ibid.

[139] Ders., 193.

[140] Quoted in Benson, ibid.

[141] A.a.O., 24.

[142] Ders., 265.

[143] Ibid.

[144] Ibid, 279.

[145] Ders., 133.

[146] Ders., 264.

[147] Ders., 21.

[148] Ibid.

[149] See Benson, op. Cit., 115.

[150] Ders., 243.

[151] Ders., 97.

[152] see also, 111.

[153] Ders., 112.

[154] See loc. Cit., 17.

[155] Ibid.

[156] See the same, 166.

[157] See ibid., 161 .; Hypnosis and the Katathyme Bilderleben according to Leuner come into consideration as further methods, which show the same physiological changes in the parameters heart and respiratory rate as well as metabolism.

[158] see Benson, op. cit., 238.

[159] See Benson, op. Cit., 181.

End of excerpt from 168 pages