Education what exactly is a scholar

Scholars

(Arabic ʿulamāʾ, sg. ʿālim), traditionally all those Muslims who have knowledge of the revelation of the Koran and the prophet. Own traditions, the hadith. The term is also applied generally to all intellectuals. In a narrower sense, G. are those that follow the curriculum of traditional islam. Have completed education. These include linguistics, logic and rhetoric as basic subjects as well as theology and jurisprudence as core disciplines. Originally, the training path for G. was hardly formalized. Students sought out various teachers from whom they learned the most important basic texts of the various subjects and, if they were successful, received a teaching certificate (Arabic. Ijāza). The appreciation of an education was measured by a. on the reputation of the respective teacher, less on the reputation of a school. In principle, education was not tied to specific institutions, but was based on the individual relationship of individual G. to their students. A formalization of the education system took place z. B. in Osman. Reich took place when attending schools with a fixed hierarchy of teachers and a regulated examination system became a prerequisite for recognition as a G. At present, the same applies to state-controlled schools such as the Azhar in Cairo or the Qarawīyīn in Fez. Graduates can take one of the positions at mosques, muezzins, prayer leaders (imams) or preachers, become teachers themselves or work in the judiciary as kadi, mufti or notary (Arabic ʿadl). Previously, learned officials were usually paid with funds from pious foundations, but since the 19th century they have increasingly been given the status of state officials. Since the islam. Law in the modern states of Islam. World has lost a large part of its former importance, the influence of G. has also waned. In addition, many modernizers of the 19th and 20th centuries attacked G. as backward and unworldly. The education they represent is not up to date and they are facing the necessary renewal of islam. Countries opposite. That led to a loss of reputation for G., but to this day they play as moral. Instances have a certain role. Opposition to state policy is mostly not expressed by civil servants G., however, some G. are also critical of the rulers and openly complain about the decline in the importance of Islam. Norms in society. Especially in Shiite. Islam claim some G., z. B. Khomeini in Iran, also political rule. One reason for this is that Shiite. G. of higher rank, the ayatollahs can see themselves as representatives of the "hidden imam", who in his absence fill the office of ruler. Although G. like Khomeini or institutions like the Azhar were able to achieve a position as supra-regional authorities, however, it was formed in islam. World no clergy or a unified organization, comparable to the Catholic Church. Widely accepted positions on certain dogmatics. Questions or legal problems arose as a result of often protracted consensus-building processes, not through instructions from an authority comparable to the Pope.

Literature:
Elger, R .: Centralism and Autonomy. Scholars and the state in Morocco, 1900 - 1931, 1994. - Mottahedeh, R .: The mantle of the prophet. The life of a Persian mullah between religion and politics, 1988.

Author:
Prof. Dr. Ralf Elger, University of Halle, Oriental Studies

Source: Elger, Ralf / Friederike Stolleis (eds.): Kleines Islam-Lexikon. History - everyday life - culture. Munich: 6th, updated and expanded edition 2018.