Does the electron have any shape
What is the world made of?
The questions of all questions ... It depends on the point of view. The first and perhaps most vivid model would be to think of the world as composed of particles. The question: “What is the world made of?” Is aimed at some form of “substance”, and when we think of substance we first think of matter. We know that there are mainly the atoms, but the atoms themselves are made up of tiny particles. In the nucleus are the protons and the neutrons, and in the so-called electron shell are the electrons. As far as we know, electrons are actually the smallest particles, but protons and neutrons are made up of even smaller particles called quarks. There are different types of them. But these electrons and quarks are the essential particles that make up the matter we know. But it is not enough to say that these particles exist and that they make up the universe. They do it according to certain rules. There are forces at work, such as the force of gravity, i.e. the gravitational force. Or there is the force that holds the atomic nuclei together. The protons and neutrons are so tightly connected in the core as if they were glued together.
Now the next question would be: what is the glue made of? That is not a real glue, it is forces, and all of these forces must have some basis, must also consist of something. Particle physicists think that these forces are also transmitted in the form of particles. So for example the photon in the light particle is the particle that transmits the electromagnetic force. And they imagine it to be similar with gravitational force. So if the earth and moon attract each other, it is because - according to the hypothesis - gravitons are traveling between the two celestial bodies, which transmit this force of attraction. Over time, the physicists have compiled a considerable - they call it the particle zoo.
But there is also something else: these many particles move in what we call space and time. What are they made of again? Here, too, the physicists tell us that space and time are not an independent quantity, that is to say, not a geometric framework in the “vacuum”, but space and time are in turn “spanned” by matter. That is one way of looking at things. The universe consists of particles in the broadest sense - or energy. According to Einstein, energy and matter are only two sides of the same coin.
Some physicists meanwhile also believe that they will get even closer to the truth if they do not imagine the universe as composed of energy or matter, but of information in the sense of information theory, i.e. bits. This is also a way of describing the universe. But basically these are all different glasses for looking into the cosmos. So if you ask what the universe is made of, there is really only one sure answer: it is made up of many puzzles.
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