Which country name ends with STAN
Most of the country names (for example Persia, Germany) are without an article, but some with (for example Iran, Switzerland). Are there any rules to be recognized?
Names of political units and continents are usually without, names of individual objects and landscapes with an article: Mecklenburg near Wismar is a castle - Mecklenburg is a federal state. Originally, Antarctica was not the name of a continent, but the opposite side of the globe from the Arctic, hence the article.
Compound names of states and their abbreviations can have an article: The Federal Republic is actually not a name, but describes a form of state. Federal republics are Germany and Austria. Similar to the United States (of America). The Netherlands is actually a landscape name for the lowlands on the lower Rhine. The state name is the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Composite names on -land, -reich do not have an article: Germany, Russia, France, Austria. These names arose from more original forms that have the article: the German country, the Russian country, the Franconian Empire, the Eastern Empire.
The country names that end in -ia in other languages end in -ien in German and have no article. -ien was an old dative and accusative to the question "where, where". In the Middle Ages you could say: "The country is called Italia, Rome is in Italy, I'm going to Italy". So also with Slovenia from Slovenia
In some cases -ia became long -ie and later -ei. These names bear the article: Normandy, Turkey, Slovakia, Mongolia.
The Czech Republic (now the Czech Republic) and Slovakia are called in the original languages Česko, Slovensko 'the… ische Land', similar to Polska 'Poland'. The German names are derived from the original residents 'names Čech, Slovakia, Polak and Slav. Vlach' Romane, Rumäne '> Wallachei' Romania.
Simple -a, on the other hand, did not become -en, but was retained: Andorra, China, Africa. Where -en appears, the original language has a different ending: The countries Sweden, Norway and Poland are called Sverige, Norge, Polska in their languages. There is no article for these names either.
The name of Switzerland probably goes back to an old Germanic female word for 'team, warband, district' (old Norse sveit). As in the vernacular with some place names (the rooster from the Hagen 'Einfriedigungshecke'), Switzerland is apparently still perceived as a designation and not as a name, even if the original word has long been forgotten.
Arabic country names also usually do not have an article (Surija 'Syria'), but al-Iraq, as-Sudan. Iraq was originally a landscape name (southern Mesopotamia). Sudan is abbreviated from Bilad al-Sudan 'countries of the blacks'. Iran has no article in either Persian or Arabic. In German, the similarity of Iraq and Iran has probably led to the fact that we also use the article for Iran.
Kosovo is shortened from South Slavic Kosovo Polje 'Amselfeld'. Kos is the blackbird, the adjective is kosovi, -a, -o 'blackbird', Polje is neuter, hence kosovo polje 'the blackbird field' and "Kosovo". The blackbird field is known as a battle site. In 1389 Christian troops tried to stop the Turks there.
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