What is the definition of protein

Proteins (Synonym: protein) are molecular chains made of amino acids. Depending on the number of amino acids, one speaks of peptide (one amino acid), oligopeptide (up to 10), polypeptide (from 10) or protein (from 50). The majority of the known proteins have a length of 50 to 1000 amino acids.

Proteins are not only an important building block of ion channels and enzymes, but also of all body tissues. Put simply: protein structures hold the entire body together. At the cellular level, the microtubules, intermediate filaments and microfilaments form the cytoskeleton of the cells.

The essential amino acids histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine must be ingested through food, as the body cannot produce them itself. Our organism independently synthesizes non-essential amino acids, such as glutamic acid, from the nutrients available.

The course of the Protein synthesis runs as follows (greatly simplified): Foreign amino acids are broken down by enzymes in the digestive tract, absorbed by the intestinal mucosa and transported to the body cells via the bloodstream. The body's own amino acid chains and thus proteins are then formed on the ribosomes during translation, in accordance with the stored base sequence in the DNA.