How do you cite multiple authors

Create bibliography

Difference between a bibliography and a bibliography

The bibliography is the most complete possible listing of literature on a particular topic. Since you only process a small part of the existing scientific literature on your topic in your bachelor thesis or seminar paper, it is better to speak of a bibliography.

The bibliography

A bibliography is also characterized in a certain way by its completeness. When you create your bibliography, include all the titles that you referred to in your seminar paper or bachelor thesis. You should not include titles that you may have read but not directly or indirectly cited, i.e. which do not correspond to any evidence within the text, when you create your bibliography. This could be seen as an artificial inflation of the bibliography. On the other hand, all titles that you refer to in your bachelor thesis, master thesis or seminar paper must appear in the bibliography.

Bibliography as a counterpart to your references

Even if you work in the text with footnotes and (for the first mention) complete bibliographical information, this does not replace the need to create a bibliography. And if you have used the American or another citation style that uses abbreviated information, the reader will only find the exact evidence with the bibliography. Regardless of how you cite the source in the text, the corresponding title must be clearly identifiable in the bibliography. Open example

Bibliographical information for monographs

A monograph is a scientific presentation of a more or less narrowly defined topic. It is an independent publication in contrast to essays or contributions in magazines, anthologies, commemorative publications, etc.

The purpose of the bibliographical reference in the bibliography is to provide the reader with the necessary information so that he or she knows exactly what publication it is when you cite from a source.

In the case of monographs, bibliographic information must, in order to be complete, contain the surname, first name (s) or initial (s), main title, subtitle, place of publication and year of publication. In addition, the edition of the source must be named, unless it is the first edition.

Design of the individual entry in the bibliography (bibliographic information)

How the individual components are separated from one another is up to you to a certain extent, if you have no other guidelines. However, periods, commas, colons, etc. should be used sensibly and moderately. Here, too, this must be done consistently for all information in the bibliography. The following design is common:


Plümacher, Martina: Philosophy after 1945 in the Federal Republic of Germany, Reinbek near Hamburg 1996.


Plümacher, Martina (1996): Philosophy after 1945 in the Federal Republic of Germany, Reinbek near Hamburg.

To make the reference in the bibliography clearer, you can put the title of the book in italics. The authors' last names can be set in small caps:

PLÜMACHER, Martina: Philosophy after 1945 in the Federal Republic of Germany, Reinbek near Hamburg 1996.

Multiple authors

Several authors or editors are separated in the bibliography by a slash or a semicolon. If there are more than three authors, only the first is given and the others are referred to with an “et al.” For “et alii” (and others). Some guidelines state that this is only done for editors, while authors must always cite all of them, even if there are more than three:


Killius, Nelson / Kluge, Jürgen / Reisch, Linda (eds.): The future of education, Frankfurt am Main 2002.