What are some examples of protein molecules
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- Many proteins consist only of amino acids; but there are also proteins that contain additional chemical components. These proteins are called conjugated proteins.
- The part of the conjugated protein that is not made up of amino acids is called the prosthetic group. Apoprotein is the name given to the protein portion without the prosthetic group.
- conjugated protein = apoprotein + prosthetic group
The classification of conjugated proteins is based on the chemical nature of the prosthetic groups. Metalloproteins contain a certain metal, glycoproteins a sugar content, flavoproteins a flavin nucleotide. Some proteins also contain more than one prosthetic group - hemoglobin, for example, is a heme protein, but could, strictly speaking, also be called a metalloprotein, since the heme group contains iron. The prosthetic group is usually essential for the function of a conjugated protein.
- Tab. 1
- Examples of conjugated proteins
|Lipoproteins||Lipids||β-lipoprotein in the blood|
|Phosphoproteins||Phosphate groups||Casein in milk|
|Heme proteins||Heme (iron porphyrin)||Hemoglobin, cytochrome|
|Flavoproteins||Flavin nucleotides||Succinate dehydrogenase|
|Metalloproteins||e.g. iron, molybdenum or calcium||Ferritin (Fe), nitrate reductase (Mo) or calmodulin (Ca)|
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