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History Great Britain

Why is England called Great Britain?

England is only the largest part of Great Britain and includes the southern part of the island. The area is bordered by Scotland to the north, Wales and the Irish Sea to the west, the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south.

The Union Acts of 1536 and 1542 united Wales with England and finally gained limited independence in 1912. Under Oliver Cromwell (1599 to 1658) the Scots had been defeated and Ireland conquered. In 1707 England and Scotland, which had previously been ruled in personal union under James I (1566-1625), were united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

In 1801 Ireland was united with England to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1916 the armed Easter uprising broke out on the Emerald Isle. After years of fighting, the British gave in: In 1921 Ireland became a Free State after the province of Ulster was ceded. Ulster remained with its six counties as Northern Ireland with Great Britain.

Where does the name "Anglo-Saxons" come from?

From the Germanic Angles and Saxons. After the Romans withdrew, they conquered the main part of the island. As the last Anglo-Saxon king, Harald II (* around 1020) was defeated in 1066 in the Battle of Hastings William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy (around 1027-1087). This began the Norman rule over Great Britain.

Who annoyed the Magna Charta?

King Johann Ohneland. This rule of law from 1215 restricted the royal omnipotence v. a. in favor of the nobility and notarized feudal privileges.

The English parliament developed in the 13th century. Edward III. raised claims to the French throne in 1328. This led to the Hundred Years War (with interruptions 1338-1453) against France. The increasing weakness of the kingship favored the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses (1455–85) between the House of Lancaster (coat of arms: red rose) and the House of York (coat of arms: white rose). In 1485 they led to the enthronement of Henry VII from the House of Tudor.

When did England become the most important naval power?

After defeating the Spanish Armada in 1588, England had dominion over the oceans for centuries. As the dominant sea power, England soon took its first steps in colonial policy. The individual adventurers, merchants and explorers of the Elizabethan era who defied the Spanish claim to sole rights were celebrated as national heroes. From 1562 John Hawkins (1532–1595) organized the slave trade between Africa and the West Indies; From 1577–1580 Francis Drake (around 1540–1596) circumnavigated the world; In 1585 Sir Walter Raleigh (around 1552-1618) founded the first English colony in North America (Virginia).

Due to its advanced industry and the wealth pouring in from the colonies, Great Britain became the undisputed commercial and economic power in the 18th century.

Why is the monarchy so important?

The British are proud of their monarchy - despite all the scandals in the royal family. The queen is the head of state and primarily entrusted with representative tasks.

The monarchy in Great Britain can look back on a centuries-old tradition. In the "Glorious Revolution" in 1689 the king signed the "Bill of Rights", which limited his power and finally made the country a constitutional monarchy. The "Golden Age" began under Queen Victoria (1819–1901) in the 19th century - Great Britain was the dominant world, sea and colonial power. During the Second World War, the monarchy represented the will of the whole country to assert itself.