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Paul Cézanne: biography Life and work of the French avant-garde painter

Paul Cézanne (1839–1906) was born in Aix-en-Provence as the son of a wealthy hat maker and later banker. Later he said somewhat ironically about his father that he was a man of genius who would have left him an income of 25,000 francs. The later writer Émile Zola went to the Collège Bourbon with Cézanne, and both remained friends for a long time. Although Cézanne initially followed his father's wishes and began studying law, he moved to Paris in 1861 to follow his vocation. At the Académie Suisse he met artists such as Camille Pissarro, who was ten years his senior and who became his most important teacher, and Armand Guillaumin. He met Edouard Manet in 1866 and took part in the informal meetings of the future Impressionists in the Café Guerbois. During these years of study, Cézanne acquired both the classical and the modern methods. His drawing books testify to an attentive look at the great masters of painting such as Rembrandt, Poussin or Eugene Delacroix, as well as ancient, classical and baroque sculpture (mainly based on copies of Michelangelo and Puge). At the same time he participates in the Impressionist movement, but without fully joining it.

Every year from 1863 onwards, Paul Cézanne sent his paintings to the official salon - they just never got accepted! After the Franco-Prussian War he took part in the First Impressionist Exhibition in 1874, and a second time in the Third Impressionist Exhibition in 1877. Critics rated him as the plumpest and most eccentric painter in the group. Some of the derogatory words that have been used to describe his art are brutal, gross, childlike, primitive. But they also describe the qualities for which Paul Cézanne was celebrated in the early 20th century.

Following the example of Courbet or Renoir, Cézanne devoted himself particularly to nude painting. Between 1870 and 1877, probably after reading Flaubert, he painted the “Temptation of Saint Anthony”. During these years numerous other paintings with an erotic undertone were created: "Modern Olympia", "Orgy", "Lutte d’amour".

While his Impressionist friends, led by Claude Monet and Pierre-Auguste Renoir, had increasing success from the 1880s, Paul Cézanne withdrew from the capital. From 1878 he spent increasing amounts of time in Aix-en-Provence and l’Estaque (1882–1888). In the 1890s he was particularly fond of Maison-Alfort and Créteil on the banks of the Marne, as well as the area around Marlotte and Fontainebleau. Cézanne succumbed to the magic of the river banks. While he used rather calm shades of blue and green in Paris, he composed symphonies in shades of gold in Provence, as in his depictions of Mont Saint-Victoire.

The most important pictorial genre in Paul Cézanne's work is the landscape, which defines around half of his entire oeuvre. In contrast to his friends from the Impressionist circle, he also worked on the still life in his studio. as a spatial study and for exploring the geometry of the body and the relationship between colors and shapes: "When the color shows its greatest richness, the form also reaches its greatest fullness," said the artist. There are around 200 still lifes among the 1000 or so paintings by Cézanne. At the same time, Cézanne was able to maintain direct contact with nature and pursue the question of composition. From 1899, at the same time as the portrait of the art dealer Vollard, Paul Cézanne was already working on his bathers ("Les Grandes Baigneuses"): The painter no longer looked for the erotic dimension of the human body in the bathers, but instead designed a new form of expression for the act.

The Parisian art dealer Ambroise Vollard organized Paul Cézanne's first solo exhibition in 1895: between November and December of that year, around 150 works provided insight into Cézanne's self-critical work. This made him an important point of reference for a generation of young painters. After Cézanne had won Paris for himself, he finally withdrew to his Provencal country estate, which he had grown more and more dear to his heart. When he died in 1906, Paul Cézanne had risen to become the "father of modernity".

Wife and child

  • Marie-Hortense Fiquet Cézanne (April 22, 1850– May 3, 1922), wedding on April 28, 1886 in the presence of the parents. After his father's death in the same year, Paul Cézanne separated from his wife, but he portrayed her 27 times by the late 1890s. The couple lived mostly separately. In the 1890s, Paul Cézanne disinherited Hortense.
  • Paul Fiquet (January 4, 1872–1947)

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Paul Cézanne: biography (1839-1906)

  • January 1839

    Paul Cézanne was born on January 19, 1839 in Aix-en-Provence as the first legitimate child of hat merchant Louis-Auguste Cézanne and Anne Elisabeth Honorine Aubert.
  • February 1839

    February 20, 1939 Paul Cézanne is baptized in St. Marie-Madeleine. His godparents were his grandmother Rose Aubert and his uncle Louis Aubert.
  • 1841

    Birth of Paul Cézanne's sister Maria (July 4th) and her baptism in the church of St. Marie-Madeleine (July 7th, 1841).
  • January 1844

    The parents Louis-Auguste and Anne Elisabeth married on January 29, 1844 in the Hôtel de Ville in Aix-en-Provence, thereby legitimizing Paul and his sister. The church celebrations were held the following day in the church of St. Marie-Madeleine.
  • 1848

    On June 1, 1848, the father Paul Cézannes bought the only bank in the city, founded the Banque Cézanne & Cabassol and made a considerable fortune.
  • 1850

    After Cézanne and Phillip Solari, who later became a sculptor and long-time friend of the painter, attended the public school in the neighborhood, they became students at the Saint-Joseph monastery school, where Cézanne became friends with Henri Gasquet. A friendship arose that lasted until Cézannes 'later years and was passed on to Gasquets' son, Joachim, towards the end of the nineties. This, a writer, had a romantic admiration for Cézanne.
  • 1852

    From 1852 Cézanne attended the Collège Bourbon in Aix. He had a close friendship with his classmates, Émile Zola, who later became a poet, and Jean-Baptist Baille. The friends known as the Three Lovebirds were drawn out to the Aix area; they spent many hours on the banks of the Arc River reading poetry, swimming and fishing.
  • June 1854

    Birth of Rose Honorine Cézanne (1.6,), sister of Paul and the last child of the parents Louis-Auguste and Anne Elisabeth. The baptism followed on June 5th in the Cathedral of Saint Sauveur.
  • 1857

    Cézanne took lessons at the Aix Municipal Drawing School.
  • 1858–1861

    Joseph Gilbert, the school's director and curator of the Musée des Beaux-Arts, was his teacher. Cézanne drew from living models and ancient sculptures.
  • February 1858

    In February Zola moved to Paris with his mother. An intense correspondence began between the joys. Cézanne had the idea of ​​going to Paris and devoting himself entirely to painting and received encouragement and moral support from Zola.
  • December 1858

    At the end of 1858, at the request of her father, Cézanne began studying law at Aixer University. His father saw in him his successor as owner of the Banque Cézanne et Cabassol. Zola appealed to Cézanne to give up his career as a banker and join him in Paris.
  • August 1859

    Cézanne won the second prize for painting at the municipal drawing school. In this difficult phase of self-discovery I was torn between hopes for a career as a painter and self-doubts about one's own abilities. In addition, he continued to study law.
  • September 1859

    The now wealthy father Cézannes acquired the Jas de Bouffan estate, two kilometers west of Aix, the former palace of the governor of Provence. The baroque mansion with a garden plot of 37 acres at the time served as a retreat for Cézanne for forty years.
  • November 1859

    On November 28, 1859, Cézanne passed the first law exam, but no longer enrolled for the second year of study. His decision was made: he wanted to go to Paris and become a painter. Probably at the intervention of his mother, the father agreed to a career change on the condition that Paul completed a proper degree in painting at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris.
  • April 1861

    Cézanne moved to Paris for the first time. His father paid him a meager monthly bill of 125 francs. Cézanne visited the salon with Zola and discussed the current Paris art scene. Cézanne began to paint a portrait of his friend, which he gave up after many sessions. In preparation for the entrance exam for the École des Beaux-Arts, Cézanne visited the Académie Suisse in the morning, where nude models could be drawn without teaching, and in the afternoon the studio of Joseph-Francois Villevieille, a painter from Aix. At the Académie Suisse, Paul Cézanne made friends with Camille Pissarro (1830–1903), ten years his senior, who had a great influence on his artistic development.
  • September 1861

    The first stay in Paris was a disappointment for Cézanne for human and artistic reasons. In relation to Zola, the intensity of the Aixer years no longer wanted to adjust. Presumably in response to his being rejected by the École des Beaux-Arts, Cézanne returned to Aix in September 1861, discouraged. His own human and artistic inability shook his self-confidence. Doubting his calling, he entered his father's bank.
  • 1862

    Paul Cézanne soon realized that he had not made the right decision. He left the bank and resumed his studies at the municipal art school.
  • November 1862

    Return to Paris. Paul Cézanne again prepared for the entrance exam for the École des Beaux-Arts. He attended the Académie Suisse and copied in the Louvre. Cézanne continued to study the Old Masters regularly in the Louvre until he was late in life. He mainly painted figure compositions and portraits. Although he was rejected a second time by the academy, Cézanne's decision to pursue a career as an artist was now clear. He found support and support from his friends. Since Jean-Baptist Baille attended the École Polytechnique in Paris, the Aix trio of Zola-Cézanne-Baille was complete again. Cézanne also made friends with some of his classmates at the Académie Suisse, including Antoine Guillemet, Armand Guilllaumin and Achille Emperaire from Aix. Guillemet put in contact with Claude Monet, Alfred Sisley, Frédéric Bazille and Pierre-August Renoir. The painter friends united the desire to be admitted to the salon exhibitions, at that time an absolute prerequisite for success.
  • 1863

    The conventional admissions jury, determined by academic ideas, closed itself off to the new artistic tendencies. In 1863, when Pissarro, Monet and Manet, among others, were rejected, this led to such great indignation and resistance that Napoleon III. to set up the alternative Salon des Réfuses. The focus of interest and criticism was Édouard Manet's “Breakfast in the Open”, which sparked a huge scandal. Cézanne and Zola were deeply impressed by the painting. Like Manet, Cézanne saw himself as a realist and thus took a position directed against the academism represented by the salon jurors. The artistic models of Cézanne in the early sixties were Eugène Delacroix and Gustave Courbet - two representatives of a painting that is constituted by color. The emphasis on the materiality of the medium in a kind of pathos of sincerity corresponded to Cézanne's view of painting as a “painting” and not as a “look into another world”. Like Courbet, Cézanne applied his colors to the canvas using a spatula technique with a palette knife. In addition to portraits and still lifes, he painted scenes of acts of violence, orgies and love fights. And although - or better, because - academism had an extensive fund of mythological and historical themes to justify erotic and violent depictions, Cézanne refrained from such cheap justifications for his images in conventional compositions and stylistic devices. He wanted to formulate his artistic statement independently and independently. Outwardly, too, he acquired an artist image, grew a beard and dressed conspicuously in a black hat and huge overcoat.
  • 1864

    Copies after paintings by Poussin and Delacroix.
  • 1865

    Paul Cézanne submitted for the salon for the first time. As expected, it was rejected - a process that was repeated over and over again in the years to come. In return, however, Manet's “Olympia” (1863) found its way into the salon and caused a huge uproar.
  • 1866

    When Cézanne was again excluded from the Paris Salon, he wrote two letters of protest to the Count of Nieuwerkerke, surintendant des Beaux-Arts. He spent the summer in Bennecourt with Zola, Baille, Solar, Guillement and others.
  • 1869

    In Paris, Cézanne met Hortense Fiquet, a 19-year-old bookbinder who worked as an artist model as a sideline. Hortense later became his wife and at the same time his most patient model.
  • 1870

    Paul Cézanne managed to draw the attention of the press to his pictures: at the last moment and in the presence of numerous journalists, he submitted two paintings for the salon: a reclining female nude and the portrait of his short colleague Achille Emperaire, a strange, almost grotesque one Figure. Of course, a recording of these paintings was not to be expected, but the staged submission finally caused an - albeit negative - reaction from the press. A caricature of Cézanne with the two rejected paintings appeared in the criticism of the salon.
  • May 1870

    Together with Paul Alexis and the sculptor Philippe Solari, Cézanne was Zola's best man.
  • July 1870

    Before the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in July, Paul Cézanne left the capital and moved with Hortense Fiquet to L'Estaque near Marseille. In contrast to the politically and nationally committed painter friends Manet, Renoir and Bazille, who volunteered for military service, Cézanne was completely apolitical.
  • September 1870

    When events in the capital came thick and fast - on September 4, 1870, the Republic was proclaimed in Paris, followed by the siege of Paris and the surrender in January 1871 - Cézanne hid in the south of France. Cézanne was fascinated by the landscape around the bay of Marseille with its dark pine trees and the sea cliffs. He turned intensely to landscape painting.
  • 1871

    In the autumn of 1871 Cézanne returned to Paris. February 1872 On January 4, 1872, Cézanne's son Paul was born. He recognized paternity, but kept the connection to Hortense Fiquet and the existence of his son a secret from the father, probably for fear of losing the monthly allowance. Since he now had to support an entire family, his economically precarious situation worsened.
  • August 1872

    The Franco-Prussian War, which scattered the artist clique around Zola and Manet, and the new life situation of Cézanne as the father of a family meant that the pre-war situation with the lively circle of friends did not recover. Perhaps this was one of the reasons why Cézanne left Paris in August 1872 to move with his family to Pontoise, twenty kilometers up the Seine, to live with Camille Pissarro. They spent the autumn there, and Cézanne worked alongside Pissarro and Guillaumin.
  • Late 1872

    Towards the end of the year the young family moved to neighboring Auvers-sur-Oise.
  • 1873

    In Auvers-sur-Oise, Cézanne continued the collaboration with Pissarro through 1873. Cézanne is in contact with the doctor Dr. Paul Gachet, who supported the group of artists around the Impressionists very much and tried himself as a painter. In painting together with Pissarro, Cézanne carried out an artistic reorientation in the application of the Impressionist technique, in the consistent work of nature and in the turn to landscape painting. The two years in Pontoise and Auvers were fundamental for the painter's further artistic development. He worked with Pissarro in front of the motif and endeavored to learn from his practical experience with landscape painting. Pissarro's influence can be seen, among other things, in the lightening of the palette and a more subtle gradation of the value, which required a thinner and more detailed application of paint.
  • 1874

    After this artistic reorientation, Cézanne tried again to join the avant-garde. At the beginning of 1874 he moved back to Paris and in the spring took part in the first group exhibition of the so-called Impressionists in the rooms of the photographer Nadar on the Boulevard des Capucines.The admission of Cézanne took place at the suggestion of Pissarro, who prevailed against the fear of the other members of the group that Cézanne's works would offend the audience too much. Cézanne presented three paintings, the “House of the Hanged Man”, a “Landscape near Auvers” and “A modern Olympia”. Participation in the exhibition was the first opportunity for Cézanne to present his work in public. As expected, his contribution to the exhibition attracted the most attention and aroused indignation from the public and critics. Nevertheless, Cézanne managed to sell his first picture in the course of this exhibition, and the “House of the Hanged Man” found its way into Count Doria's collection.
  • 1876

    Cézanne was not represented at the second Impressionist exhibition in 1876. Probably he did not have the financial means for it, because each participating artist had to contribute to cover the expenses. This year Cézanne met - through Renoir's mediation - the customs inspector Victor Choquet, Cézanne's first and most loyal collector, who was vehemently committed to his work. Choquet bought three paintings by Cézanne in the shop of the Parisian paint dealer Père Tanguy. Tanguy, whom Cézanne had met through Pissarro, was considered a supporter of the avant-garde painters, to whom he supplied paints and canvases in exchange for pictures. In addition to Cézanne and others, van Gogh later owed his first sales to him.
  • 1877

    In the third Impressionist exhibition, 16 works by Cézanne were shown; the majority of the pictures came from the Victor Choquet collection. This exhibition succeeded in breaking open the previously closed front of the critics against the new painting, but despite the now more positive response to Impressionism, the works of Cézanne fell through with the critics completely. Since then he has increasingly withdrawn to Provence.
  • March 1878

    When Cézanne's father received information about the existence of his partner and son in March 1878, he threatened to discontinue the financial contribution. Probably out of fear of having to do without it, Cézanne denied his family. As a result, he sought distance from his relatives in Aix and moved his center of life again to the Íle-de-France.
  • 1879–1881

    Paul Cézanne lived with Hortense and Paul in Paris, Melun and Pontoise, where he worked again with Pissarro. During these years regular visits were made to Zola in Médan, a place on the Seine not far from Paris, where the now successful writer owned a house. Cézanne was also in close contact with Monet and Renoir, and his friends also visit him in Provence.
  • 1882

    At the beginning of 1882, Renoir, who was seriously ill with pneumonia, was cared for by Cézanne in L'Estaque. In the same year, a painting by Cézanne, the "Portrait of Louis-Auguste Cézanne" (1866), was finally accepted for the salon, but only because of a trick: Antoine Guillement had become a member of the jury and thus had the right to view a work by a student - and as such he passed off Cézanne - to be brought into the exhibition without a jurisprudence. Participation in the Salon in 1882 was Cézanne's only one.
  • 1883

    Monet and Renoir visited Cézanne in Aix-en-Provence and in L'Estaque.
  • 1884

    From 1884 Cézanne stayed mainly in Aix-en-Provence and the surrounding area. After the rejection of his submission to the Salon in 1884, Cézanne no longer sent the Salon.
  • 1885

    A puzzling love story in the spring of 1885 caused Cézanne to seek a temporary distance from his homeland and encouraged him to go to La Roche-Guyon to Renoir and then to Médan to Zola in the summer.
  • Summer 1885 – Spring 1886

    Paul Cézanne rented a small apartment in Gardanne, a town seventeen kilometers southwest of Aix, to accommodate Hortense with Paul, who is now thirteen. The mountain town inspired him to take several views.
  • 1886

    Paul Cézanne decided to the family to disclose and legalize the relationship with Hortense Fiquet, perhaps also with a view to a possible imminent inheritance, because Cézanne's father was already very ill at that time.
  • March 1886

    In March 1886 Zola's Roma “L'Œuvre” was published. Cézanne recognized himself in the main character of the novel, an artist who had failed because of his claims. In the second main character of the novel, the writer Pierre Sandoz, Zola could be identified himself. Then Cézanne, deeply wounded by Zola's lack of understanding of his painting and, above all, by the consequence of failure through suicide devised by the poet, broke off all contact with her childhood friend. The two childhood friends have also become estranged from each other due to their divergent views and attitudes towards painting - and ultimately also towards politics. Zola had originally been a fighter first for Manet's realism and then for Impressionism, but then turned to the tradition of academic salon painting. Cézanne, on the other hand, represented his own conception of painting - that is, the claim to knowledge of the image structures of mimetic depiction - ever more consistently.
  • April 1886

    On April 28, 1886, Cézanne married Hortense Fiquet in Aix. However, this only meant a confirmation of the decades-long relationship. Hortense Fiquet continued to live almost entirely in Paris, while Cézanne spent most of the year at the Jas de Bouffan.
  • October 1886

    After his father's death on October 23, 1886, Cézanne inherited a considerable fortune, which guaranteed him financial independence and thus the freedom to concentrate fully on his work. He could now actually afford the long-awaited retired life and work in Aix, because he was no longer dependent on success in the Parisian scene and the sale of his pictures.
  • January 1888

    Cézanne had reconnection with his old painter friends, especially with Monet and Renoir. In January 1888 Renoir visited him in Aix. The two painters occasionally worked together, including on the estate of Cézanne's brother-in-law Maxime Conil, southwest of Aix. However, Renoir left the Jas de Bouffan early because, as he wrote, he was constrained by the greed that ruled there. Cézanne reduced his contacts to a few people in his immediate vicinity and old childhood friends from Aix, the writer Paul Alexis and the poet Numa Coste. His subjects focused on the landscape around Aix, friends and farmers in the area.
  • 1889

    As part of the world exhibition in 1889, an exhibition of the century of French painting took place in the Palais des Beaux-Arts. The progressive critic Roger Marx, curator of the exhibition, sought to present contemporary trends and asked Cézanne to mediate the painting “House of the Hanged Man” from Count Doria's collection.
  • January 1890

    At the invitation of the Belgian artist group Les Vingt, Cézanne exhibited three works in Brussels in January.
  • 1890

    At the instigation of his wife, Cézanne spent the summer of 1890 on a five-month trip to Switzerland. The great mountain world of the Alps did not stimulate him to new landscape compositions, but irritated him. He needed the familiarity, the repeated examination of the motif, in order to be artistically fruitful. In the same year he got diabetes. As a result, his unsteady temperament was additionally burdened and he never reduced his contacts to the closest family or old friends in Aix.
  • 1891

    Cézanne visited his mother at Jas de Bouffan.
  • 1894

    In order to get Cézanne recognition and commissions, Monet tried to bring the shy artist into contact with society. In 1894 he invited him to Giverny to celebrate his birthday, where Cézanne made the acquaintance of Auguste Rodin, Georges Clemenceau and the art critic and writer Gustave Geffroy - the latter had published a benevolent article about Cézanne in "Le Journal" on March 25th. In honor of the friend, Monet organized a banquet that ended with a scandal: the host's laudation plunged the honoree into deep confusion. Convinced that Monet was making fun of him, Cézanne left the company in a hurry and left Giverny in a hurry; in his quarters he left some unfinished paintings. Cézanne's reaction and his distrust of friends were all the more striking when Monet was the only one of his contemporaries whom Cézanne really valued as a painter and to whom he felt very attached as a friend - even after this incident. They painted together again and again, and Cézanne repeatedly expressed in his letters how much Monet's moral support encouraged him to paint. The paint dealer Tanguy died. At the auction of the estate, Cézanne's works fetched up to 215 francs. On Monet's advice, the young art dealer Ambroise Vollard was also among the buyers and acquired four paintings by Cézanne.
  • May 1895

    In May 1985, Cézanne - together with Pissarro - visited the exhibition of Monet's paintings in the Cathedral of Rouen in the Durand-Ruel gallery and was very impressed.
  • December 1895

    With a few exceptions, until 1895 works by Cézanne could only be seen in the shop of the late Père Tanguys. In December 1895, the first and at the same time largest Cézanne exhibition took place in the Vollard gallery on Rue Laffitte in Paris. The exhibition came about with the help of Cézanne's son Paul, on whose mediation Cézanne sent 150 rolled pictures to Vollard. It is not clear how many paintings Vollard actually showed in his exhibition, possibly only 30 to 40 works. The painter himself did not take part in this important event in his career. The Parisian art critics rejected many exhibits as unfinished, while Cézanne's artist colleagues were very enthusiastic about these pictures. Vollard was able to sell some pictures. In 1895 Cézanne first met the poet Joachim Gasquet, son of former schoolmate Henri Gasquet.
  • 1896

    Ambroise Vollard traveled to Aix and won Cézanne for a second exhibition, which was presented in May and June 1898 with around 60 pictures.
  • October 1897

    Death of Cézanne's mother (25.10.). As a result, the Jas de Bouffan, which served the painter as a refuge, was sold at the insistence of his brother-in-law. The house was probably too big for Cézanne alone - his wife and son lived mostly in Paris - and too expensive to maintain. In the same year Hugo von Tschudi, the new director of the Berlin National Gallery, bought “The Mill on the Couleuvre near Pointoise” (1881) from the Parisian art dealer Durand-Ruel. This was the first painting by Cézanne to be bought by a museum. Success outside of France was also slowly emerging.
  • 1898

    After Cézanne's second solo exhibition at Vollard, the latter wrote to Gauguin in Tahiti that he had bought all of the pictures in Cézanne's Paris studio.
  • 1899

    Cézanne painted the portrait of the art dealer Vollard in many sessions - after that, Cézanne and Vollard did not meet again. The fact that Monet acquired the painting “Melting Snow in Fontainebleau” for the high sum of 6,750 francs at the auction of the Doria collection in 1899 aroused great interest in the press. Monet owned a total of fourteen paintings by Cézanne, which, after the Pissarros collection, was the second largest among the painters with twenty paintings. He bought most of the paintings from Vollard, as did Renoir and Caillebotte, who each bought four paintings, Degas, who bought seven, and Matisse, who bought the painting of "Bathers", which he loved so much, from Vollard in 1899.
  • 1900

    In 1900 Paul Cassier organized the painter's first solo exhibition in Germany with thirteen paintings in Berlin. However, the loans were returned unsold to Durand-Ruel, who had made the pictures available. In the Paris exhibition of the century, Cézanne was able to show three pictures.
  • 1901

    Two pictures were exhibited in the Salon des Indépendants. Exhibition of a picture in Brussels together with the group “La Libre Esthétique”.
  • May 1901

    A small exhibition from the Hoogendijk collection in The Hague.
  • November 1901

    After the failed attempt to acquire the large complex of the Cháteau Noir, a country estate east of Aix begun in the middle of the 19th century, Cézanne bought a plot of land on Chemin des Lauves, on the hills north of Aix, in November 1901. In the following year, a two-story building with a large studio on the upper floor was built there according to his ideas. The oversized canvases can be pushed into the building from the side through special openings. In the meantime, Paul Cézanne used a makeshift studio in the city center of Aix.
  • 1902

    Participation in the Salon des Indépendants with three pictures. Construction and move into a studio house on Chemin des Lauves. Cézanne wrote his final will in which he made his son the sole heir and passed on to his wife.
  • September 1902

    Death of Zola's childhood friend in Paris, with whom the connection was broken, but whose demise nevertheless deeply touched Cézanne (29.9.).
  • 1903

    As part of an impressionism exhibition at the Vienna Secession, seven pictures by Cézanne, the first in Austria, were exhibited (January – February).
  • May 1903

    At the auction of Zola's estate, an average of 1,500 francs was achieved for ten works by Cézanne. The press criticized his work.
  • November 1903

    Paul Cézanne's long-time friend Camille Pissarro died (November 13th). Despite all the shyness and difficulties in dealing with other people, Cézanne had appreciated the contact with his friends and acquaintances.
  • 1904

    Cézanne now dominated the artistic scene in Paris. He was represented with 33 works at the Paris Autumn Salon. The exhibition was a great success. Paul Cassirer organized the second solo exhibition in Berlin.
  • February 1904

    In February 1904, the painter and art theorist Émile Bernard visited Cézanne for the first time and was allowed to live and work in Les Lauves from March to April.
  • 1905

    Paul Durand-Ruel organized a large exhibition with over 300 works in the Grafton Galleries in London. Bernard's second visit. In the same or the following year that of the painter Maurice Denis, who in 1898 had set a monument to the admiration of the master by the younger generation of painters with the painting “Hommage á Cézanne”. In the same year Monet admitted his admiration for Cézanne, whom he called a master of the present day. Many painters were interested in Cézanne's theories of painting and tried to preserve them for posterity in various forms: in letters, conversations and records of visits. The most important testimony, however, is Cézanne's own letters, written to Émile Bernard between April 1904 and September 1906, in which he expressed his views on art.
  • 1906

    While Cézanne had fled the heat of the south to the Île-de-France in the summers of 1904 and 1905, he stayed in Provence in the exceptionally hot summer of 1906. Cézanne went to the tree-lined banks of the Arc River to paint and watercolors.
  • October 1906

    On October 15, while working outdoors, Paul Cézanne was caught in a violent thunderstorm and became faint. It took hours to find him unconscious. The next day he was working again on a portrait of his gardener Vallier. On October 23, 1906, Paul Cézanne died just as he had wished, painting, as it were, in Aix-en-Provence. The painter Émile Bernard published an essay on Cézanne.
  • 1907

    First Parisian retrospective of Cézanne's work, which met with a wide response.