Did the Gauls look like the Europeans of today?
Structure and history of Dutch An introduction to Dutch linguistics
The prehistory of the Germanic language family and thus also of Dutch is the subject of historical-comparative linguistics. The aim of this branch of linguistics is to show linguistic relationships and Proto-languages to reconstruct. The following method is used: regular phonetic correspondence between words in the central vocabulary is examined. The following overview provides examples of such phonetic correspondence:
It can be clearly seen that the words listed have similarities in the various languages. Differences between languages are often systematic rather than accidental. The Dutch sound [œy] - written
The Germanic languages are also related to other languages. This relationship was first established by Sir William Jones in 1786. Historical-comparative linguistics has even succeeded in finding a common language by comparing older language stages Proto-language Reconstruct (an 'ancestor') for most of the European and Indian languages: that Protoindo-European (formerly called 'Indo-European'). However, one must be aware that nothing has been handed down of such proto and original languages, so they are purely hypothetical. On the basis of the oldest surviving linguistic material of the individual languages, however, historical linguists can reconstruct what the protoindo-European original form must have looked like.
Famous founders of historical-comparative linguistics were Rasmus Kristian Rask (1787-1832), Jacob Grimm (1785-1863) and Franz Bopp (1791-1867). August Schleicher (1821-1868) developed this Family tree model, which was later developed from the 1872 by Johannes Schmidt Wave model Got competition. The family tree model makes it possible to clearly illustrate the relationships between languages. The family tree of the Germanic languages looks like this: (cf. van Bree (1996)):
The Indo-European is the language that the Indo-Europeans brought to Europe when they settled between 3000 and 2000 BC. From southern Russia to the north and west. The languages spoken by the indigenous population before the Indo-European invasion of Europe (so-called. Substrate languages) were largely displaced by the Indo-European. The hypotheses about these substrate languages are contradictory: Remnants of them could still be included in Indo-European, e.g. certain sound combinations and so-called. Substrate wordsthat have existed for several thousand years.
Since the Indo-Europeans lost contact with each other and due to the influence of the substrate languages of the native population, from 1000 BC onwards they developed. Different languages from Indo-European. The Germanic forms a branch in the history of the so-called Indo-European language family. The following overview shows the various branches.
The first or the Germanic sound shift
Between 2000-1000 BC A group of Indo-Europeans settled in northern Germany, Denmark and southern Sweden and mixed with the local population. The changed pronunciation led to changes in the original sound system. Between 1000-500 BC The Germanic is said to have originated in this way. There is, however, no surviving material, but historical linguists were able to identify some forms of the common mother tongue of the Germanic languages, the Proto-European reconstruct.
Germanic differs systematically from the other Indo-European languages in several points. The most important difference concerns systematic sound changes under the term Germanic sound shift be summarized. This development dragged on for centuries and was probably completed around the 2nd century BC. The Germanic sound shift is also known under the term 'Grimm's Law', as the German linguist Jakob Grimm (1785-1863) described it in 1822. The sound shift implies that a handful of Indo-European consonants were systematically pronounced differently. The overview below summarizes the changes:
|Voiceless occlusive||p||t||k||Voiceless fricatives||f||Þ||X|
|Voiced occlusive||b||d||G||Voiceless occlusive||p||t||k|
|Voiced aspirated occlusive||bra||ie||gh||Voiced fricatives|
In 1875 the Dane Karl Verner succeeded in formulating an exception to these regularities in a rule that was later called the 'Verner Law'. He found that the voiceless fricatives, which arose from the Germanic phonetic shift, under certain stress ratios (when the main accent Not falls on the immediately preceding syllable) became voiced. I.e.
f > , Þ > en X >
This also applies to the already existing voiceless fricative [s], which then becomes voiced - [z] -.
The Germanic accent shift
After the Germanic phonetic shift, there were other important developments, as a result of which Germanic evolved away from the other Indo-European languages. From approx. 500 BC Chr. Changed the stress ratio: The so-called. Germanic accent shift had far-reaching consequences for the further development of the Germanic languages. The initial syllable of words was systematically stressed, but the final syllable was not. As a result, the full vowels at the end of the word became Schwas. The endings of the words were reduced even though they contained morphological information (case, number, person ...). This led to a simplification of the paradigms, a process called deflection.
The decay of the Germanic
Due to the migration of the Germanic peoples and local influences, the Germanic split into different branches, namely into North, East and West Germanic. After 500 AD, that also fell apart West Germanic. Between the 6th and 8th centuries the second sound shift instead, which was not so important for the development of Dutch, but which explains the differences between Dutch and German.
The second or high German sound shift
The second sound shift began in the south of the German-speaking area and spread northwards to the so-called. Benrath line out. The most important change concerned the Germanic voiceless occlusive. The changes are briefly illustrated below.
The High German sound shift up to the Benrath line (cf. Van der Wal 1993: 46)
Voiceless occlusive in the 'initial'; in the 'Geminatie' (doubling); after a consonant:
|Old High German||German||Dutch|
|p > pf||Got. pound|
|t > (t) s||Got. tiuhan|
|k > kch / ch||Osa. wekkian|
Voiceless occlusive after a vowel:
|Old High German||German||Dutch|
|p > ff / f||Osa. opane|
slâf (f) an
|t > ss||Osa. fôt|
|k > ch||Osa. ik|
The West Germanic language area was divided into two parts by the high German sound shift: the southern part high german Part, and the northern Low German and Dutch part, which did not go along with this sound shift. The dialects north of the Benrath line kept their original consonants. The transition from ik to I is the change that has been most pronounced, namely as far as Limburg.
A second difference within the West Germanic language area concerns the so-called 'coastal phenomena'. There are systematic differences between Old English, Old Frisian and Old Saxon on the one hand and Old High German on the other. The term is also used for these coastal phenomena Ginger or North Sea Germanic. In fact, Ingwaeon is not a separate language, but it does show some phonetic and grammatical peculiarities that have spread along the North Sea coast. The Ingwaeonisms can show some differences between English and Frisian (which have many Ingwaeon characteristics), the eastern German (in which there are no Ingwaeonisms) and the Dutch in between, which forms a transition area.
A well-known gingerism is the so-called. Equivalent stretch, the loss of the nasal and the stretching of the vowel before a fricative.
|* munþ||mouth|| moon, Dendermonde|
-muide, e.g. Diksmuide
Other examples of gingerisms in Dutch:
|'t' is missing in the 3rd pers. Sg.||is||is||is|
|another root for personal pronouns||he him|
|hij / hem|
|he / him|
|Transition from -ege- to -ei-||sail||line||Sail|
Within West Germanic, Dutch took its own place due to the aforementioned developments and features. The oldest phase in the history of Dutch in the narrower sense describes the Old Dutch.
- How are mutual funds set up
- Who are the best writers from Mongolia
- What if I have a pending case
- Is Gavin Newsom politically damaged
- Is there open source MLaaS
- Which Sleepwell mattresses are best to buy
- Why are Biharis criticized everywhere
- When does lobbying become unethical?
- What is the SFU famous for
- Is there any science how to prove that
- When will the disease of liberalism be cured?
- How can I make a speech safely?
- What are recommendations for cheap backpack equipment
- Is Sikkim an organic state
- What Businesses Thrive in an Economic Depression
- The brain processes data bi-directionally
- How does the voltage affect the current?
- What are the names of antipyretics
- Where was the Boston Marathon
- Why is austenite not magnetic
- What is a direct doctorate at IISc
- What language do they speak in Bhutan
- How long can yeast be stored
- What's your rating of Gears 5