How did the Soviet Union industrialize?
The age of industry
India Was under the influence of the British East India Company (here) at the time of the Industrial Revolution, which had no interest in industrialization: India should buy British goods and in return supply tea and raw materials. The manufacture of cloth was replaced by British manufactured goods, and it was not until the mid-19th century that an indigenous industry developed - simple fabrics for poor people, the prices of which England could not undercut due to transport costs. In addition, there was only steel production - rails for railway construction. It was only when India became independent in 1947 that industrialization began - according to the Soviet model as a socialist planned economy with a special focus on heavy industry. In addition, private companies were allowed to operate. Import tariffs protected the domestic economy, but sealed India off from the world market.
The liberalization of the Indian economy began in 1991: import tariffs were dismantled, the state began to withdraw from the economy. Economic growth has been 6 percent on average since 1995, and 8 percent in 2005 and 2006. The middle class grew to 200 million people (out of a total of 1.1 billion inhabitants); the number of undernourished people fell to 150 million. The service sector plays a special role here - in IT services India ranks second in the world after Ireland - but steel magnates such as Ratan Tata and Lakshmi Mittal are also known worldwide today. Many economists see India as the third largest industrial nation behind the USA and China by 2050. Air pollution is also considerable in major Indian cities - Vapi and Sukinda are among the ten most polluted cities on earth; and water scarcity is a problem in many regions (more on water use).
Does the upswing in China and India threaten our jobs? An optimistic assessment of the trade expert Jagdish Bhagwati in an interview with ZEIT.
The Consequences of the Industrial Revolution: The Social Issue in Developed Countries and the Impact on the Rest of the World.
Overview - The Age of Industry
© Jürgen Paeger 2006 - 2020
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