Neurosis is considered a pathology
[engl. neurosis; gr.νεῦρον (neuron) Nerve], [KLI], today in the DSM-IV or DSM-5 or ICD-10 (classification of mental disorders) no longer used (because it is discriminatory) term, introduced by the Scottish doctor W. Cullen in 1776. He understood it to be a nerve disease without any anatomic-pathological findings. The extent of the psych. Disturbances are best from the theoretical position of the authors. From psychol. Sight, a neurosis is an unconscious resistance and the neurotic symptoms are merely expressions of psychodynamic conflict. Contrast this with behavioral therapy. oriented authors put the neurotic conflicts themselves in the foreground and interpreted them as learned mistakes. Together they consider a neurosis to be a failure to cope with fundamental life tasks. A fundamental theory of neurosis comes from S. Freud (psychoanalysis). According to him, the neurosis is the result of an incomplete repression of impulses from the id by the ego. Despite the repression, the repressed impulse threatens to break through into consciousness and behavior. In order to ward off this impulse again, the neurotic symptom is developed, which on the one hand represents a substitute satisfaction for this impulse, but on the other hand represents an attempt to finally eliminate it. Freud differentiated according to the criterion of the duration and strength of the conflict that triggered it, as well as the manner in which it was processed: The Current neurosis with primarily vegetative symptoms due to strong but unspecific. Affect effects on the vegetative system in connection with an act. Conflict. These include: (1) the startle neurosis, (2) the fear neurosis, (3) the neurasthenic syndromes. The psychoneuroses (also Defense psychoneurosis) with psych. and somatic symptoms as a result of the incomplete repression of incompatible drive impulses on the background of a chronic drive conflict. These include: (1) the hysterical syndromes (including organ neurosis), (2) the phobic syndromes, (3) the anankastic syndromes, (4) the character neurosis. The traumatic neuroses with the same symptoms as the actual neuroses and the psychoneuroses, but with a specific Genesis (triggered by accident) and with a specific Motivation (tendency to secure). A distinction is made between: (1) the primary accident neuroses and (2) the secondary pension, insurance and legal neuroses (or also purpose neuroses).
J. H. Schultz understands neurosis to be a "mentally-based malposition of the entire organism, which lies in the unconscious and which, depending on the link between the nervous-mental factor and all vital functions, can now express itself in all areas of life. According to the criterion of the depth of the roots of the conflict in the personality, he differentiates: (1) exogenous external neurosis (caused from outside), (2) psychogenic marginal neurosis (caused by somatopsychic conflicts), (3) layer neurosis (caused by internal mental conflicts) , (4) core neurosis (rooted in character and its autopsychic conflicts). For Schultz-Hencke, the neurosis arises from traumas (micro-traumas), which inhibit and oversteer, and occasionally understeer, the drive life. H. lead to unrestrained outbursts of instinct According to C.G. Jung (analytical psychology) neurosis is a self-division and at the same time a signal for the reunification of consciousness and the unconscious. A. Adler presents the neurosis as an arrangement based on overcompensation. I. Pavlov, regarding the neurosis as a disturbance of the cerebral equilibrium. According to J. Wolpe, neurosis is a learned emot. habit. In E. Eysenck's work, the neurosis is represented as a learned maladjustment. In the ICD-10 and DSM-IV (Classification of Mental Disorders) the generic term neurosis is no longer used. Successor term: mental disorder. However, the ICD-10 uses the term neurotic used occasionally and also for upper classes like neurotic stress and somatoform disorders used.
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